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The Arms Trade in East Africa in the Late Nineteenth Century

  • R. W. Beachey
Extract

The unrestricted trade in arms and ammunition in East Africa in the late nineteenth century was one of the most important problems facing European administrators, missionaries, and traders.

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1 Krapf, J. L., Travels and Missionary Labours in East Africa (1860), 364.

2 Burton, R. F., The Lake Regions of Central Africa (1860), 11, 308.

3 Cameron, V. L., Across Africa (1877), 1, 201, 373.Livingstone, D., Last Journals (1874), 11, 73.

4 Speke, J. H., Journal of Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863), 207, 245.

5 Hill, G. B., Colonel Gordon in Central Africa (1899), 186.

6 Pasha, Emin, Emin in Central Africa (1888), 115.

7 Sullivan, G. L., Dhow Chasing in Zanzibar Waters (1873), 125.

8 Chanler, W. A., Through Jungle and Desert (1896), 217.

9 Foreign Office Correspondence (hereafter cited as F.O.) 6341/219 Lugard's Report no. 3, 11 Jan. 1892.

10 F.O. 7689/64 Intelligence Division to Foreign Office, 1 Dec. 1900.

11 F.O. 7401/100 Report on Toni Confederacy, Major Sitwell, 13 May 1899.

12 F.O. 6497/8 Rodd to Anton, 6 Sept. 1893.

13 F.O. 6403/97 Inclosure 3, Lugard to Kitchener, 10 Feb. 1893

14 F.O. 6039/86 Inclosure 1, Stanley to Euan-Smith, 19 Dec. 1888.

15 F.O. 5732/52 Euan-Smith to Rosebery, 28 June 1888.

18 Ibid. Inclosure, Mackay to Euan-Smith, 18 April 1888.

19 F.O. 5732/73 Scott to Salisbury, 14 June 1888.

20 F.O. 84/24 6 Feb. 1879. In early 1879 a British vessel, the Vortigern, was wrecked in the Gulf of Aden. This vessel had on board ‘forty tons of gunpowder and 1,000 stand of arms’, destined for the Delagoa Bay area.

21 F.O. 5867/48 Memo by Hon. Guy Dawnay, 12 Dec. 1888.

22 F.O. 6454/261 Rodd to Rosebery, 11 May 1893.

23 F.O. 5867/50 Euan-Smith to Salisbury, 20 April 1889.

24 The Times, 9 Nov. 1888.

25 Berliner Tageblatt, 12 Oct. 1888;Nationale Zeitung, 24 Oct. 1888.

26 F.O. 5770/215 Universities Mission Report, 7 Nov. 1888.

27 F.O. 5977/367 Salisbury to Hardinge, 16 Sept. 1889.

28 F.O. 6025/1 Admiralty, 30 Sept. 1889.

29 F.O. 6039/279 Memo by von Wissman, 28 Jan. 1890.

30 F.O. 6127/12 Sultan's Proclamation, Feb. 1889.

31 F.O. 5867/314 I.B.E.A.C., 24 Feb. 1890.

32 SirHertslet, E., The Map of Africa by Treaty, iii, 60.

33 F.O. 6340/206 Portal, 20 May 1892. F.O. 6454/265 Rodd to Rosebery, 12 May 1893. F.O. 6341/264 Proclamation of Von Soden, 1 Dec. 1891. F.O. 6341/132 Proclamation of Von Soden, 9 July 1892.

34 F.O. 6341/91 Portal to Salisbury, 4 July 1892.

35 F.O. 6341/91 Portal to Salisbury, 4 July 1892.

36 F.O. 6340/206 Portal, 20 May 1892.

38 F.O. 6490/121 Captain Williams to Rodd, 3 July 1893.

39 F.O. 6557/73 Colvile to Cracknall, 10 Dec. 1893. F.O. 6557/6 Owen to Colvile, 8 March 1894.

40 F.O. 6557/3 Owen to Colvile, 29 March 1894.

41 F.O. 6490/121 Captain Williams to Rodd, 3 July 1893.

43 F.O. 7401/100 Report on Toru Confederacy by Major Sitwell, 23 May 1899.

44 Parliamentary Papers, Africa no. 4, Lugard to the Imperial British East Africa Company, 13 Aug. 1891.

46 F.O. 6454/231 Count Hatzfeldt to Rosebery, 23 May 1893.

47 Cameron, op. cit. 373, speaks of Arabs at Kwagasongo en route to Nyangwe (west of Tanganyika) employing Wanyamwezi whom they supply with arms and guns to get slaves.

48 This figure is obtained from the sum total of various amounts indicated in correspondence for the year.

49 F.O. 6557/73 Colvile to Cracknall, 10 Dec. 1893.

50 F.O. 6454/154 Sewa Hadji's supplies at Bakumbi at the beginning of 1893:

51 F.O. 6261/50 Lugard to Imperial British East Africa Company, 4 April 1891.

52 Parliamentary Papers, Africa no. 4, Lugard to Imperial British East Africa Company, 13 Aug. 1891.

53 F.O. 6805/44 Jackson to Kimberley, 3 July 1895.

54 F.O. 7868/48 Notes on Uganda by Intelligence Officer, E. Knox, 22 Oct. 1901.

55 F.O. 7946/145 Intelligence Report, Uganda, Feb. 1902.

56 F.O. 7401/100 Report on Toru Confederacy by Major Sitwell, 23 May 1899.

57 F.O. 7868/48 Notes on Uganda by E. Knox, 12 Oct. 1901.

58 F.O. 7024/25 and 79, Wilson to Salisbury, 9 Nov. and 7 Dec. 1897.

59 F.O. 6451/181, 265, 354, Rodd to Rosebery, April 1893, 10 May 1893, 27 May 1893. F.O. 6454/355 Rodd to Baron von Schele, 27 May 1893.

60 F.O. 7401/102 Foreign Office to India Office, 23 May 1899.

61 F.O. 8040/165 Inclosures from various Residents, 1902.

62 F.O. 8040/165 Resident, Aden to Bombay government, 8 March 1901.

63 F.O. 7953/8 Cordeaux to Lansdowne, 17 March 1902.

64 F.O. 8040/165 Resident, Aden to Bombay government, March 1901.

65 F.O. 6617/11 Inclosure 1, Captain Dugmore to Mr Cracknall, 23 May 1894.

66 F.O. 7953/8 Acting-Consul-General Cordeaux to Lansdowne, 17 March 1902.

67 F.O. 7953/146 Memo on Somali Arms Traffic, communicated by M. Cambon, 24 May 1902.

68 F.O. 8040/165 Inclosure, Resident, Aden, 8 March 1901.

70 F.O. 6043/294 Rosebery to Monson, 20 March 1893.

71 F.O. 7954/75 Monson to M. Delcasse, 14 Aug. 1902.

72 F.O. 7954/60 Lansdowne to Monson, 23 April 1902.

73 F.O. 7946/5 Memo by Signor Pansa, 7 Jan. 1902.

74 F.O. 7946/14 Acting-Consul-General Cordeaux to Lansdowne, 24 Dec. 1901.

75 F.O. 7953/237 Sir T. Sanderson to Foreign Office, 28 June 1902.

76 F.O. 7953/222 Cordeaux to Lansdowne, 7 June 1902.

77 F.O. 8040/165 Inclosure 5, Intelligence Division to War Office, 27 Aug. 1902.

78 F.O. 6951/97 17 Feb. 1897.

79 F.O. 8040/166 Inclosure 4, 24 Aug. 1902.

80 F.O. 8040/166 Inclosure, Lt.-Col. Abud to Bombay government, 13 Sept. 1902. (Cargoes of captured dhows did not vary from these figures in respect to ammunition and arms carried.)

81 F.O. 8040/165 Inclosure 5, Major Cox to Lt.-Col. Kemball, Muscat, 27 Aug. 1902.

83 F.O. 7946/68 Lord Currie to Lansdowne, 4 Feb. 1902.

84 F.O. 8040/180 Commander Cartwright to Admiralty, July 1902.

85 F.O. 7954/70 Commander Pears to Admiralty, 11 June 1902.

87 F.O. 8040/70 Inclosure 1, Commander Pears to Admiralty, 12 Sept. 1902.

88 F.O. 8040/218 Government of India to Lord G. Hamilton, 9 Oct. 1902.

89 F.O. 8040/180 Commander Cartwright to Rear-Admiral Bosanquet, July 1902.

90 F.O. 7823/168 Macdougall to Eliot, 6 May 1901. F.O. 8040/24 Inclosure 3, Commander Swayne to Lansdowne, 4 July 1902.

91 F.O. 8040/296 Memo communicated by M. Cambon to Foreign Office, 31 Dec. 1902. F.O. 8040/274 Inclosure 1, Rear-Admiral Drury to Admiralty, 2 Dec. 1902.

92 Postlethwaite, J. R. P., I Look Back (1947), 51–2.

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The Journal of African History
  • ISSN: 0021-8537
  • EISSN: 1469-5138
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