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Negotiating the Lucknow Pact

  • Hugh F. Owen
Abstract

Despite the bitter legacy of clashes between India's Hindus and Muslims since the 1880's, the alienation of Muslims from the Indian National Congress, which was reflected in die rise of the Muslim League, was reversed as the result of a number of political developments between 1910 and 1916 and through the efforts of leading personalities on both sides, most notably Jinnah, Wazir Hasan, Gokhale and Mrs. Annie Besant. Nationalist Muslims, some of whom were already prominent in Congress, increasingly captured control of key positions in the Muslim League, and linked hands with Congress' goal of secularism and its claims to represent all Indians. A series of developments and meetings led to the compromise of the Lucknow Pact. This prepared the way for Hindu-Muslim cooperation in agitational politics, 1919–22. Simultaneously, however, the negotiations for the Pact alienated important groups, notably Hindu groups in the Punjab and Bengal, and encouraged Hindu and Muslim communalists to build up communal organisations asserting and working for the separate interests of tJieir respective communities. This helped to prepare the way for the communal clashes in the 1920's.

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1 Report of the 31st Indian National Congress … 1916 (Allahabad: Reception Committee Lucknow, 1917), p. 70 ; Hindu, Dec. 27, 1916, p. 9d.

2 Census of India, 1911, Vol. I part 2, pp. 37–41: Population of India, total 314 million; Muslim 67 million.

3 See the text of the reforms scheme in The Indian Demands (Madras: Natesan, [1917]), pp. 97104; Banerjee, A. C., Indian Constitutional Documents, 1757–1947 (Calcutta: A. Mukherjee, 1961), Vol. II, pp. 289–95.

4 See the extracts from private records of Tyabji, Budrud-din, in Source Material for a History of the Freedom Movement in India (Collected from Bombay Government Records) (Bombay: Govt. of Bombay, 1958) [hereinafter BHFM], Vol. II, pp. 6482, 85–8.

5 For the process by which special arrangements for the Muslims were incorporated in the Morley- Minto reforms, see Wasti, S. R., Lord Minto and the Indian Nationalist Movement 190; to 1910 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1964), esp. ch. V; Das, M. N., India under Morley and Minto (London: Allen & Unwin, 1964), esp. pp. 147–82, 228–49; Wolpert, S. A., Morley and India, 1906–1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), pp. 185300.

8 Bombay Presidency Association, Council Minutes, July 1, 1909; G. K. Gokhale to W. Wedderburn, Dec. 3, 1909, Gokhale Papers, held at National Archives of India, Delhi.

7 Gokhale to Wedderburn, Sept. 24, 1909, in Wolpert, S. A., Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), p. 235 ; Gokhale to Wedderburn, June 30, 1910, Gokhale Papers.

8 Report of the 22nd Indian National Congress … 1906 (Calcutta, 1907), p. 120; Datta, K. K., History of the Freedom Movement in Bihar (Patna: Government of Bihar, 1957), Vol. I, pp. 153–4; cf. Saiyid, M. H., Mohammad AH Jinnah (A Political Study) (Lahore: Ashraf, 1953), p. 37; Pirzada, S. S. (ed.), Foundations of Pakistan: All-lndia Muslim League Documents: 1906–1947 (Karachi: National Publishing House, [1969]), Vol. I, pp. 256, 316–17.

9 Indian Statutory Commission, Vol. IV Memoranda submitted by the Government of India (London: HMSO, 1930) , Memorandum no. 3: “Communal Disorders,” especially pp. 97–9.

10 Brennan, L., “Land Policy and Social Change in Rohilkhand, 1800–1911” (unpublished MA thesis, University of Western Australia, 1968), pp. 227–41 ; Census of India, 1911, Vol. I, part I, p. 123.

11 O'Malley, L. S. S., Bengal District Gazetteers, Patna (Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, 1907), p. 65 ; ibid., Darbhanga, pp. 30–1.

12 Jones, K. W., “Communalism in the Punjab: the Arya Samaj Contribution,” Journal of Asian Studies, XXVII/1 (November 1968), pp. 4750; Barrier, N. G., “The Arya Samaj and Congress Politics in the Punjab, 1894–1908,” Journal of Asian Studies, XXVI/3 (May 1967), pp. 363–79 ; Government of India, Home Department Political file [hereinafter “Home Poll”] Deposit [hereinafter “Dep.”] April 1912, no. 4 (extracts from this file kindly provided by Mr. K. I. McPherson); Census of India, 1911, Vol. I, pan 1, p. 24; Noman, M., Muslim India [Rise and Growth of the All India Muslim League] (Allahabad: Kitabistan, 1942), pp. 5763.

13 Sec B. G. Tilak to P. Mehta, Aug. 26, 1893, Pherozeshah Mehta Papers, held by Sir H. Modi, Bombay; Extract from file 3074/h/1, Police Commissioner's Office, Bombay, p. 14 (extracts held at Bombay Office, History of the Freedom Movement; portions reprinted in BHFM, Vol. II, pp. 201–6, 210–11).

14 Syed Nawab Muhammad to C. Vijiaraghavachariar Feb. 22, 1908, Vijiaraghavachariar Papers held at Salem.

15 Rao, M. V. Ramana, Development of the Congress Constitution (New Delhi: A-ICC, 1958); Ghosh, P. C., The Development of the Indian National Congress, 1892–1909 (Calcutta: Mukhopadhyay, 1960).

16 Congress Constitution, articles xiv, xx, xxii, in Report of the Proceedings of the 23rd Indian National Congress … 1908 (Madras, 1909), Appendix.

17 Figures compiled from the lists of delegates in the Report of the Proceedings of the 29th Indian National Congress held at Madras … 1914 (Madras: Minerva Press, 1915) , Report of the 30th Indian National Congress held at Bombay … 1915 (Bombay: D. E. Wacha Chairman Reception Committee, 1916) , and Report of the 31st Indian National Congress held at Lucknow … 1916 (Lucknow: Reception Committee, 1917).

18 Draft Constitution and Rules of the All-India Muslim League [hereafter A-IML], 1912, in Home Poll A Feb. 1913, nos. 85–6.

19 Census of India, 1911, Vol. I part 2, pp. 37–41.

20 See Broomfield, J. H., Elite Conflict in a Plural Society: Twentieth-Century Bengal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), p. 44.

21 See for example, Robinson, F., “Municipal Government and Muslim Separatism in the United Provinces, 1883–1916”(unpublished paper presented to European Conference on Modern South Asia,Copenhagen,1970).

22 K. K. Datta, History of the Freedom Movement in Bihar, Vol. I, pp. 150–1.

23 Bombay Presidency Police, Abstracts of Intelligence (extracts held by Bombay Office, History of the Freedom Movement in India), 1917, paragraphs 1170, 1198(c) [hereinafter Police Abstracts will be referred to thus: “(Province of origin) Police (year), par.(a)”].

24 New India, Dec. 4, 1914, p. 8; Dec. 8, 1915, p. 7.

25 McPherson, K. I., “The Political Development of the Urdu- and Tamil-speaking Muslims of the Madras Presidency, 1901 to 1937” (unpublished MA thesis, University of Western Australia, 1968), pp. 1718.

26 For earlier accounts, see Report on Indian Constitutional Reforms [“Montagu-Chelmsford Report”] (Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, 1918), pp. 1415; A History of the Freedom Movement (Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1961), Vol. III, pp. 106–26.

27 Gokhale, Budget Speech, Mar. 29, 1909, in Speeches of Gopal Krishna Gokhale (Madras: Natesan, 1916), p. 209 ; cf. speech of July 11, 1909 in Karve, D. G. and Ambekar, D. V. (eds.) Speeches and Writings of … Gokhale (Bombay: Asia, 1966), Vol. II, pp. 309–11.

28 Wedderburn to Gokhale, Oct. 13, 1910, Gokhale Papers; Cambridge History of India (Cambridge: University Press, 1932), Vol. VI, pp. 576–7.

29 Address by R. N. Mudholkar, 1912, Congress Presidential Addresses (Madras: Natesan, 1935), Vol. II, p. 71 ; cf. S. Sinha to Gokhale, Aug. 8, 1912, Gokhale Papers.

30 H. Vishindas to Gokhale, March 18, 20 and Aug. 7, 1913, Gokhale Papers.

31 New India, 1914, July 27, p. 6; Oct. 5, p. 8; Oct. 6, p. 7; Oct. 9, pp. 4, 5; Oct. 12, p. 10; Oct. 14, p. 4; Oct. 16, pp. 6, 8; Oct. 24, p. 4; Leader (Allahabad) and Tribune (Lahore) reprinted in ibid., Oct. 10, p. 4, and Nov. 30, p. 5, respectively; Home Poll B Jan. 1915, nos. 278–82.

32 Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Sessions of the All-India Muslim League, reproduced in S. S. Pirzada, Foundations of Pakistan, Vol. I, p. 94; cf. wording translated from M. Ansari, Tarikji Muslim League, in Bahadur, Lai, The Muslim League: its History, Activities and Achievements (Agra: Agra Book Store, 1954), p. 82.

33 Aga Khan to Gokhale, Dec. 28, 1910, Gokhale Papers.

34 R. H. Craddock, Home Member, Minute 19 July 1912, in Home Poll A March 1913, nos. 45–55, p. 1; cf. ibid., pp. 26, 42; Nawab of Dacca's Presidential Address, A-IML March 1912 Sessions, in S. S. Pirzada, Foundations of Pakistan, Vol. I, esp. pp. 236–37.

35 “Addresses presented in India to His Excellency the Viceroy and the Rt. Hon. the Secretary of State for India”, Cd. 9178, House of Commons Papers, 1918, Vol. XVIII [hereinafter Montagu Addresses], p. 30: Address of the Indian Moslem Association.

36 Home Poll A Oct. 1913, nos. 100–18, pp. 51, 181.

37 Home Poll A March 1913, nos. 45–55, p. 39; ibid. B Nov. 1913, no. 149, p. 2.

38 Rahman, Matiur, From Consultation to Confrontation: Study of the Muslim League in British Indian Politics, 1906–1912 (London: Luzac, 1970), especially pp. 197–98, 204, 222, 226, 277.

39 Lai Bahadur, The Muslim League, p. 92.

40 See M. M. Shafi, Presidential Speech, A-IML session, March 1913, Lucknow, in M. Noman, Muslim India, p. 128; cf. Jinnah's argument, in S. S. Pirzada, Foundations of Pakistan, Vol. I, p. 259.

41 Bombay Police 1914, par. 235.

42 Fateh Ali Khan, Qizilbash, Nawab, to Sir James Meston, Jan. 3, 1914 and May 19, 1914, Meston Papers, India Office Records, MSS. Eur. F. 136, Vol. VI; cf. Note from the viceroy to the lieut.-governor of the United Provinces [hereinafter “UP”] on the Muhammadan Situation [n.d.], same file.

43 See Home Poll Dep. Dec. 1914, no. 31.

44 Home Poll B Feb. 1914, nos. 777–80; ibid. B Dec. 1914, nos. 218–22; ibid. A Jan. 1915, nos. 180–2; ibid. B Jan. 1915, nos. 278–82; ibid. B April 1915, nos. 416–19.

45 See ibid. A Jan. 1914, no. 11; ibid. A March 1914, nos. 127–37; ibid. Dep. May 1915, no. 36; “Reports on Native Papers in Bengal” [hereafter “Bengal Newspapers”] 1915, Vol. I, pp. 17–18, 1127–8, 1144–66, Vol. II, p. 16; ibid., 1916, Vol. I, pp. 93, 316, 413, 626, 847.

46 Jinnah and 28 others to W. Hasan, Hon. Sec, A-IML, Apr. 12, 19151 in Home Poll A Feb. 1916, nos. 425–8, Enclosure A.

47 Aga Khan to Sir Fazulbhoy Currimbhoy, July 14, 1915, extracts in Bombay Police 1915, par. 801; and idem to idem Apr. 1915 quoted in L. Robertson, Government of Bombay to Government of India, Jan. 19, 1916, in Home Poll A Feb. 1916, nos. 425–28; Aga Khan to Mehta, telegram, Nov. 1915, in Home Poll B Dec. 1915, nos. 709–11.

48 Home Poll Dep. March 1915, no. 56.

49 See Home Poll Dep. Dec. 1914, no. 31, p. 2.

50 Sir Ibrahim Rahimtulla, Fazulbhoy Chinoy and Sir Fazulbhoy Currimbhoy were contenders, see Wacha to Mehta Dec. 18, 1897, Mehta Papers; Bombay Police 1915, pars. 505, 601, 1340(0).

51 New India, Nov. 11, 1915, p. 8.

52 Khan, Aga, The Memoirs of the Aga Khan: World Enough and Time (London: Cassell, 1954), pp. 147–8 ; Home Poll Dep. March 1915, no. 56, UP Report.

53 History of the Freedom Movement (Karachi), p. 57.

54 Moslem Hitaishi, Sept. 17, 1915, in Bengal Newspapers 1915, p. 646.

55 A. K. Fazlu Huq, Presidential Speech, Bengal Provincial Muslim League Conference, Apr. 13, 1914, in Home Poll B May 1914, nos. 137–40.

56 Bengal Newspapers 1915, pp. 59, 70, 132–3.

57 J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict, pp. 89–91; see New India, Nov. 11, 1915, p. 8.

58 Bombay Police 1915, par. 1404.

59 Bombay Police 1915, par. 801.

60 Home Poll Dep. Sept. 1915, no. 57.

61 Home Poll Dep. Dec. 1915, no. 26.

62 Bombay Police 1915, pars. 478, 1258, 1404, 1447(a); Home Poll B Nov. 1915, nos. 538–42, week ending Nov. 16, 1915, par. 2; week ending Nov. 23, 1915, par. 1; week ending Nov. 30, 1915, par. 2.

63 BHFM, Vol. II, pp. 870–81.

64 Home Poll B Jan. 1916, nos. 541–4, p. 17.

65 Speech to Madras Mahajana Sabha, in New India, March 13, 1915, p. 8, reprinted as A. Besant, Self-Government for India (“New India” Political Pamphlet No. 1) (Adyar: Vasanta, 1915).

66 A. Besant, The Political Outlook. (“New India” Political Pamphlet No. 2), p. 34; Mahratta, Apr. 4, 1915, p. 114.

67 Home Poll B Jan. 1916, nos. 541–44, p. 12; New India, Dec. 30, 1915, p. 11, Dec. 31, 1915, p. 11, Jan. 11, 1916, p. 7.

68 Commonweal, Jan. 8, 1915, pp. 19–20.

69 A. Besant, The Political Outlook., pp. 15. 17.

70 New India, 1915, Oct. 18, p. 9, Oct. 20, p. 9, Dec. 8, p. 7, Dec. 14, p. 17, Dec. 27, p. 8, Dec. 30, p. 8.

71 New India, Nov. 30, 1914, p. 5, summarizing an article in Tribune (Lahore).

72 New India, March 20, 1915, p. 10; resolutions of 1908, 1909, and 1911 Congresses; Home Public A April 1915, nos. 206–20.

73 Home Public A July 1915, nos. 75–9, esp. pp. 9–12; Sir James Meston to Lord MacDonnell, May 6, 1915, Meston Papers, MSS. Eur. F. 136, Vol. IV.

74 See for example New India, May 6, 1915, p. 12.

75 Al Burecd (Kanpur), June 18, 1916, in “Selections from Indian-Owned Newspapers published in the United Provinces” [hereinafter “UP News-papers”] 1916, p. 542.

76 A minority in a town, if less than 25%, was to have representation in proportion to its population increased by 30%; if 25% to 38½% of the population, its representation would be raised to 38½%: Home Poll Dep. April 1916, no. 19, p. 7.

77 F. Robinson, article cited in note 21 above, pp. 80–3.

78 Leader, March 29, April 1, 1916, Advocate, March 30, 1916, Abhyudaya, April 8, 1916, in UP Newspapers 1916, pp. 272–73, 291, 297–300, 322; cf. ibid. pp. 296, 321, 542, 821, 1022, 1027, 1084, 1114; Home Poll Dep. June 1916, no. 25; ibid. Sept. 1916, nos. 17, 18; ibid. Nov. 1916, no. 49; Bengal Newspapers 1916, pp. 731, 775, 820, 871, 1008, 1086, 1137, 1503.

79 See reference by Syed Nabiullah in his Wei- come Address as Chairman of the 1916 session of the Muslim League, Hindu, Dec 30, 1916, p. 12b; see Indian Daily Telegraph (Lucknow, controlled by Mahmudabad), Nov. 22, Dec. 19, 1916, in UP Newspapers 19.16, pp. 1045, IIII.

80 See UP Newspapers 1916, pp. 1061, 1084, IIII, 1130; ibid. 1917, pp. 11, 45.

81 Madras Provincial Congress Committee [hereinafter PCC], Annual Meeting of General Body, April 12 and 13, 1916, Minutes; Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, par. 142. The number from each province and principal persons attending were: UP 10, M. M. Malaviya, Motilal Nehru, Dr. T. B. Sapru, Samiullah Beg, Gokaran Nath Misra, C. Y. Chintamani, Pt Jagat Narain, Munshi Ishwar Saran, H. N. Kunzru; Madras 9, Mrs. Besant, N. Subbarau Pantulu, L. A. Govindaraghava Aiyar, B. N. Sarma, V. S. S. Sastri, C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, A. P. Patro; Bengal 6, Bhupendranath Basu, P. C. Roy; Bihar 5, M. Haque, S. Sinha, C. B. Sahay; Bombay 1, N. M. Samarth; Panjab 1, Lala Harkishen Lai; CP 1, N. A. Dravid; Berar 1.

82 UP Police 1916, par. 1849.

83 Ibid., and par. 1992; Wazir Hasan's report to the 1916 A-IML session, in S. S. Pirzada, Foundations of Pakistan, Vol. I, p. 378.

84 See text, Bombay Police 1916, par. 1126; Home Poll Dep. May 1917, no. 17.

85 The number and principal members from each province were: UP 7, Raja of Mahmudabad, Wazir Hasan, Syed Nabiullah, Syed Ali Nabi, Samiullah Beg, Syed Raza Ali, Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan; Bengal 7, Syed Nawabali Chowdhry, A. Rasul, Fazlul Huq; Panjab 4, Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, M. M. Shaft, M. Barkat Ali; Bihar and Orissa 4, Sir Ali Imam, Mazharul Haque; Bombay and Sind 6, Aga Khan, Sir I. Rahimtulla, A. H. A. Peerbhoy, Jinnah, G. M. Bhurgri, F. Tyabji; Madras 3, Yakub Hasan, Nawab Syed Muhammad, N. G. A. Kalami; CP and Berar 1; Burma 2: Home Poll A Feb. 1916, nos. 425–8, Enclosure H. Originally some 71 members were proposed to this committee: see Pirzada, S. S., Foundations of Pakistan, Vol. I, pp. 354–56.

86 See A. Rasul, Presidential Address, Bengal Muslim League, April 1916, in Mohammadi, May 5, 1916, Bengal Newspapers 1916, p. 880.

87 See Ali Nabiapos;s tribute to her, Bombay Police 1917, par. 139.

88 Mahratta, Oct. 25, 1914, p. 329.

89 See V. S. S. Sastri, Diary (held at Servants of India Society, Madras), July 11, 1915; Home Poll B Aug. 1915, nos. 552–56; Bombay Police 1915, par. 963; ibid. 1916, par. 610; A-ICC minutes, Dec. 26, 1915.

90 Tulzapurkar, D. A. & Patwardhan, R. V., A Step in the Steamer [A Description of Mr. B. G. Tilak's Public Career ….] (Bombay, National Bureau, 1918), “Prelude,” p. lxxxiv.

91 Quoted in Saiyid, M. H., Mohammad Ali Jinnah (A Political Study) (Lahore: Ashraf, 1953), p. 67 ; Sadaqat, Oct. 25, 1916, in Bengal Newspapers 1916, p. 1471; cf. UP Newspapers 1916, p. 1023.

92 Dwarkadas, Jamnadas, Political Memoirs (Bombay: United Asia Publications, 1969), pp. 122–23.

93 V. S. S. Sastri to Hanumanta Rao, Sept. 26, 1916, Servants of India Society papers held at the Society, Poona; Sastri Diary, Sept. 3 to Oct. 9, 1916.

94 Bhupendranath Basu to C. Vijiaraghavachariar, Oct. 23, 1916, Vijiaraghavachariar Papers.

95 Memorandum of the 19, in The Indian Demands, p. 40, my emphasis.

96 See par. 4, Section I, Congress and Muslim League's Scheme of Reforms, reproduced in The Indian Demands, p. 97; F. Robinson, article cited in note 21 above, pp. 51–2, indicates that the working of the 1909 reforms had convinced many Hindus in the United Provinces of the desirability of preventing Muslims being elected from the general constituencies and so increasing their weightage.

97 Home Poll B Nov. 1916, nos. 452–53. Muslims were originally to get 30% of seats in Bihar, 20% in Bombay. It was stated that this meeting agreed to concede to the Muslims 33⅓% of the seats in the central Council (a weightage of some 12%). but this was not incorporated in the final scheme: see Section III of the scheme in The Indian Demands, pp. 100–3.

98 Home Poll B Nov. 1916, nos. 452–53. (Harkishen Lai had been joined by another Panjabi Congress representative, Lala Dhanpat Rai.)

99 Ibid.; Bombay Police 1917, par. 21(a)

100 V. S. S. Sastri, Diary, Nov. 18, 1916; see Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, par. 142.

101 See Bombay Police 1917, par. 21(a); Bengal Police 1917, par. 330.

102 Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, par. 142.

103 Ibid.

104 lbid., pars 142, 143; Hindu, Dec. 27, 1916, p. 9, Dec. 28, 1916, pp. 8, 10, Dec. 29, 1916, p. 10; S. L. Karandikar, Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. …. (Poona, author, [1957]), pp. 438–39.

105 Originally two-thirds, see Bihar and Orissa Police, par. 142; Hindu, Dec. 28, 1916, p. 10.

106 See Address of the Panjab Hindu Sabha, Montagu Addresses, p. 14; B. Parmanand, foreword to Prakash, Indra, A Review of the History & Work, of the Hindu Mahasabha and the Hindu Sanghatan Movement (New Delhi: Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, 1938), p. ii.

107 Indra Prakash, vol. cited in note 106, p. ii; see also N. G. Barrier, article cited in note 12 above, pp. 378–9; and Barrier, N. G., “The Punjab Government and Communal Politics, 1870–1908,” Journal of Asian Studies, XXVII/3 (May 1968), p. 539.

108 Indra Prakash, vol. cited in note 106, pp. iii, v–xii, 9; New India Nov. 30, 1914, p. 5.

109 See source cited in note 7 above. For the formation of the Delhi Hindu Sabha, see Ferrell, D., “Delhi, 1911–1922: Society and Politics in the New Imperial Capital of India” (unpublished PhD. thesis, Australian National University), p. 191.

110 Indra Prakash, vol. cited in note 106, pp. 10, 15–18.

111 See address of the All-India Hindu Sabha, Montagu Addresses, p. 19.

112 New India, Dec. 20, 1915, p. 16, Dec. 27, 1915, p. 8, Dec. 28, 1915, p. 6; Home Poll B April 1915, nos. 416–19; Home Poll Dep. March 1916, no. 49.

113 Home Poll Dep. Aug. 1916, no. 25.

114 Leader, Aug. 16, 1916, in UP Newspapers 1916, p. 752; see also H. V. Lovett, Lucknow, to Sir James Meston, Aug. 27, 1916, in Meston Papers, MSS. Eur. F. 136, Vol. IV.

115 Hindu, Jan. 3, 1917, p. 5.

116 See ibid, and Hindu, Dec. 29, 1916, p. 10.

117 Hindu, Jan. 3, 1917, p. 5; of the other three, two were from south India, one from the Panjab.

118 F. Robinson, article cited in note 21 above, PP. 54. 71 75n-2. 87–8.

119 Leader, Jan. 6, 1917, in UP Newspapers 1917, PP. 11–12; see also Abhyudaya, Nov. 11, 1916, Azad, Nov. 23, 1916, in UP Newspapers 1916, pp. 1023, 1046; Al Bureed, Jan. 4, 1917, Anand (Lucknow), Jan. 8, 1917 in UP Newspapers 1917, pp. 26–7.

120 See for example UP Newspapers 1917, pp. 44, 45, 61, 62, 80.

121 Report of the 31st Indian National Congress … 1916, p. 96.

122 Dev Ratan Sharma, Secretary, A-I Hindu Sabha and Congress delegate from the Panjab, to Mrs. A. Besant, Dec. 28, 1917, Adyar Archives.

123 Address by the Panjab Hindu Sabha, Montagu Addresses, p. 14.

124 See Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia in Hindu, Jan. 11, 1917, p. 5.

125 Home Poll B Nov. 1916, nos. 453–53.

126 Home Poll Dep. March 1917, no. 32.

127 Montagu Addresses, p. 13.

128 See UP Newspapers 1916, p.IIII; Musawat (Allahabad), Jan. 18, Mukhbir-i-Alam (Moradabad), Jan. 15, Al-Bashir (Etawah), Jan. 23, 1917, in ibid. 1917, pp. 61, 62, 80.

129 Mashriq (Gorakhpur), Nov. 7, Nov. 21, Dec. 5, 1916, Medina (Bijnor), Nov. 22, 1916, Nasim (Agra), Dec. 19, 1916, Nai Roshni (Aliahabad), Dec. 6, Dec. 10, 1916, in UP Newspapers 1916, pp. 1022–23, –46, –7, –83, –4, –99, 1126; though cf. Nai Roshni, Dec. 25, 1916 in UP Newspapers 1917, p. 11.

130 UP Newspapers 1917, p. 62.

131 See Sir James Meston to Lord Chelmsford, Jan. 11, 1917, Chelmsford Correspondence, India Office Records, MSS. Eur. E. 264, Vol. XVIII.

132 Montagu Addresses, p. 10; cf. Montagu, , An Indian Diary (London: Heinemann, 1930), p. 45 ; UP Newspapers 1917, p. 798; Home Poll Dep. Jan. 1918, no. 1.

133 Madras Presidency Muslim League, Council Minutes, Nov. 30, Dec. 15, Dec. 18, 1917; Home Poll Dep. Jan. 1918, no. 2; Montagu Addresses, p. 62.

134 Montagu, An Indian Diary, p. 118.

135 Home Poll Dep. May 1917, no. 70; ibid. May 1917, nos. 445–48, p. 5; ibid. Dep. Aug. 1917 no. 3; ibid, Dep. Jan. 1918, no. 1, p. 8.

136 See Fateh Ali Khan, Qizilbash, Nawab, to Sir James Meston, Jan. 3, 1914, May 19, 1914, and Wazir Hasan, May 7, 1914, in Meston Papers, MSS. Eur. F. 136, Vol. VI.

137 Moslem Hitaishi, Sept. 17, 1915, in Bengal Newspapers 1915, p. 646.

138 Hindu, Nov. 27, 1916, pp. 5, 10, Dec. 27, 1916, pp. 3–4; UP Newspapers 1916, pp. 1023, 1029–30, 1129; Bengal Newspapers 1916, pp. 1434, 1504, 1541.

139 1877–1936; educated Abbottabad, Peshawar, Lahore, Cambridge, Gray's Inn; barrister Sialkot 1901–1905, Lahore 1905–20; leader, Panjab Unionist Party, and Minister for Education and Local Self-Government, Panjab, 1921–25; Panjab Executive Councillor 1926–30; Member, Viceroy's Executive Council, 1930–35.

140 Home Poll Dep. March 1916, no. 49; ibid. B March 1916, nos. 667–70; Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, par. 143; Hindu, Dec. 30, 1916, p. 12.

141 Lai Bahadur, The Muslim League, p. 73; History of the Freedom Movement (Karachi), pp. 41–2.

142 Home Poll Dep. March 1916, no. 49; UP Newspapers 1916, p. 1047.

143 Husain, A., Fazl-i-Husain: a Political Biography (Bombay: Longmans, 1946), p. 185.

144 Address of the Panjab Muslim League, Montagu Addresses, p. 3.

145 Indian Statutory Commission, Vol. XVI, pp. 129–31, 153, 154, 175, 252, 261, 262.

146 Views of the Local Governments on the Working of the Reforms, 1923, p. 162; ibid., 1927, pp. 246, 248.

147 A. Husain, Fazl-i-Husain, pp. 245–52.

148 Memorandum by the Hon'ble Nawab Ali Chowdhry [undated, between Jan. & April 1917], Chelmsford Correspondence, MSS. Eur. E. 264, Vol. LI; see J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict, p. 125; Bengal Newspapers 1916, p. 1434.

149 Bombay Police 1917, par. 139.

150 Home Poll B May 1917, nos. 445–48, p. 24; Bengal Police 1917, pars. 1685, 2774.

151 J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict, pp. 114–15; Bengal Newspapers 1917, pp. 456, 564, 596.

152 Mohammadi, Nov. 10, 1916, in Bengal Newspapers 1916, p. 1540.

153 The great mosque of Calcutta near which many leading Muslim merchants had their premises.

154 Bengal Police 1917, pars. 4337, 4593; Bengal Newspapers 1917, p. 1165.

155 Bengal Police 1917, pars. 4471, 4597, 4725, 4849, 4959.

156 Montagu Addresses, pp. 29–30.

157 Ibid., p. 29.

158 Ibid.; Montagu, An Indian Diary, p. 86.

159 J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict, pp. 125–29; Indian Statutory Commission, Vol. XVII, pp. 48, 51, 181, 193.

160 Report of the Reforms Enquiry Committee, 7924 [“Muddiman Report”] (London: HMSO, 1925), pp. 18, 198 ; See J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict.

161 Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, par. 1249; Home Poll Dep. Nov. 1917, no. 7, pp. 10–11.

162 Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, pars. 161, 192, 542; Home Poll A Dec. 1913, nos. 1–4; cf. Lovett, V., A History of the Indian Nationalist Movement (London: Murray, 1921), pp. 143–50.

163 Home Poll B Nov. 1917, nos. 471–74, p. 14; ibid. Dep. Jan. 1918, no. 1, p. 18.

164 Bengal Police 1917, pars. 4605, 4735, 4852(3), 4959; Bengal Newspapers 1917, pp. 1090, 1105, 1106, 1124–8, 1167; Bihar and Orissa Police 1917, pars. 15, 1350; Home Poll B Dec. 1917, nos. 225–28, p. 4.

165 (London: Allen and Unwin, 1946), p. 36.

166 See figures in Rothermund, D., Die Politische Willensbildung in Indien, 1900–1960 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965), p. 74.

167 Dumont, L., “Nationalism and Communalism,” Contributions to Indian Sociology, no. 7 (March 1964), pp. 3070.

168 par 3 section I, in The Indian Demands, p. 97; for the franchise for the central council see par. 3, section III, ibid., p. 100.

169 See the author's “Towards Nation-wide Agitation and Organisation: the Home Rule Leagues, 1915–18,” in Low, D. A. (ed.), Soundings in Modern South Asian History (London: Weidenp. feld & Nicolson, and Berkeley: University of California Press,, 1968), pp. 159–95.

170 For Bengal, sec J. H. Broomfield, “The Forgotten Majority: the Bengal Muslims and September 1918,” in D. A. Low, Vol. cited in note 169, pp. 196–224.

171 Sec Home Poll Dep. Jan. 19171 no. 45.

172 Anand (Lucknow), Jan. 8, 1917, in UP Newspapers 1917, p. 26–7.

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The Journal of Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0021-9118
  • EISSN: 1752-0401
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