1 Sakamaki, Shunzō, Ryukyu: A Bibliographical Guide to OKinawan Studies (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1963), pp. 40–43; “The Rckidai hōan,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, LXXXIII (Jan.-Mar., 1963), 107–113. Yung-hsiang, Lai, Li-tai-pao-an, A Collection of Documents on Foreign Relations of the Ryukyu Islands (Taipei, 1962).
2 The basic primary sources used in preparing this paper are the following: Volume 39: five despatches from Siam to Ryukyu, A.D. 1430–1481; eight from Malacca, 1467–1481. Volume 40: nineteen despatches from Ryukyu to Siam, 1425–1442; five to Java, 1430–1442; one to Palembang, 1428; four to unspecified countries (probably Siam or Java), 1437–1438. Volume 41: five despatches from Ryukyu to Siam, 1464–1469; eleven to Malacca, 1463–1472; three to Sumatra, 1463–1468. Volume 42: twenty-two shisshō (certificates) for voyages to Siam, 1509–1564; three to Malacca, 1509–1511; one to Annam, 1509; two to Sunda, 1513, 1518; eight to Patani, 1515–1543; and one to Palembang, 1428. Volume 43: seven despatches to Palembang, 1428–1440; two from Palembang, 1431; one to Siam, 1428.
3 See Shigeo, Sakuma, “Ming-dai kaigai shibōeki no rekishiteki haikei-Fukien-shō o chūshin to shite” (“Historical Background of Private Foreign Trade in Ming Period—Chiefly on the Case of the Fukien Province”), Shigaku Zasshi (The Journal of Historical Science), LXII (Jan. 1953), 1–25; “Mingerlō no kaikin seisaku” (“On die Prohibition of the Overseas Trade under the Ming Dynasty”), TōhōgaKu (Eastern Studies), No. 6 (June 1953), 42–51. Reischauer, Edwin O. and Fairbank, John K., East Asia The Great Tradition (Boston, 1960), pp. 321–325, 330–337.
4 Important studies of Ryukyuan relations with Southeast Asian countries in the I4tb-16th centuries include the following: Atsushi, Kpbata, Chūsei nantō tsūkō-bōeki shi no kenKyū [Study of Overseas Contacts and Trade with the Southern islands in the Middle Ages] (Tokyo: Nippon Hyōronsha, 1939).Kanjun, Higaonna, Reimeiki no kaigai kōtsū shi [History of Overseas Contacts at the Dawn of a New Age] (Tokyo: Teikoku Kyōikukai, 1941).Nobu, Asato, Nippon nanpō hatten shi [History of Japan's Southern Expansion] (Tokyo: Sanseidō, 1942).
5 Rekidai hōan First Collection (1697–1698), Vol. 42, document No. 3.
6 Annotated monographs on the Ryukyuans in Southeast Asia include the following by Kenzō, Akiyama: “Gores wa Ryūkyū-jin de aru” [“The Gores are Ryukyuans”], Shigaku Zasshi (The Historical Journal of Japan), XXXIX (1928), 268–285; “Gores naru meishō no hassei to sono rekishiteki hatten” [“The origin and historical development of the term Gores”], ibid., 1349–1359; “Muromachi-jidai ni okeru Ryūkyū no Indo-Shina shokoku to no tsūkō” [“Ryukyuan Communications with the Countries of Indo-China During the Muromachi Period”] [1392–1490], Rekishi Chiri [Historical Geography], LVI (1930), 441–461; “Ōhaku raikō zengo no Tōyō ni okeru kaijō-bōeki” [“Sea Trade in the Orient About the Time of the Advent of European Ships”], Shakai Keizatshigaku (The Journal of the Social and Economic History Society), V (1935), 503–519, 629–646. See also Kenzō, Akiyama, Nisshi Kōshō shiwa [Historical Essays on Japanese-Chinese Relations] (Tokyo, 1937), 254–303, and Tōa kōshō shiron [Historical Treatises on East Asian Relations] (Tokyo, 1944), 124–136. Atsushi, Kobata, “Kyūkō oyobi sono Nichi-Ryū ryōkoku tono kōshō ni tsuite” [“On Palembang and its Relations with Japan and Ryukyu”], Shtrin (The Journal of History), XX (1935), 590–661; “Ryūkyū-Maraka-kan no tsūshō kankei ni tsuite” [“On Trade Relations Between Ryukyu and Malacca”], Keizaishi Kenkyū [Studies in Economic History], XIV (1935), 579–593, 712–724. See also monographs by Kobata Atsushi in Taiheiyō-ken minsoku to bunka [Peoples and Cultures in the Pacific Ocean Sphere] (Tokyo, 1942), 223–251; Nanpō bunka kōza: Nippon nanpō hatten shi hen [Lectures on Southern Cultures: Volume on the History of Japanese Expansion Southward] (Tokyo: Sanshōdō, 1944), 95–151.