Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Sowing War, Reaping Peace: United Nations Resource Development Programs in the Republic of Korea, 1950–1953

  • Lisa M. Brady (a1)
Abstract

Between 1950 and 1953, the United Nations (UN) undertook two related tasks in Korea: the first was to assist the Republic of Korea in achieving military victory in its conflict with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; the second was to support postcolonial economic and political reconstruction on the peninsula. In both, the UN promoted the implementation of modern agricultural and resource management practices, directly tying increased domestic farm and forestry productivity to military success. Through the lens of UN development projects, the Korean War, often characterized as a point of rupture, represented less a moment of disjuncture than it did a period of accelerated continuity. This article interweaves environmental, military, and development history to analyze several UN programs in the Republic of Korea between 1950 and 1953, demonstrating that the UN viewed resource development as among the most effective ways to wage and win a war.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abelarde, Pedro E. 1952. “Some Aspects of Korean Economic Rehabilitation.” United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) Registry Files, series 526, box 17, folder 6. United Nations Archives and Records Management Section (UNARMS), New York.
Chung, Yun-tai. 1952. Letter to F. B. Silsbee. September 10. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 21, folder 4. UNARMS, New York.
Du Pasquier, R. H. 1951. “Agricultural Report: Recovery and Development of Korean Agricultural Production.” January 14. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 6. UNARMS, New York.
Hanson, Herbert C. 1949. “The Agro-climatic Analogue (Homoclime) Technique in Plant Introduction and Distribution of New Selections.Agronomy Journal 41(5):186–88. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 4. UNARMS, New York.
Henson, Edwin R. 1952. Letter to General Clyde L. Hyssong. October 3. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 5. UNARMS, New York.
Howe, G. Melvin. 1948. “Agro-climatic Analogues.Nature 161(4101):983. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 4. UNARMS, New York.
Kim, Hon Kyu. 1951. “The Necessity of Goat Importation.” September 8. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
Kim, Hon Kyu. 1952. “Technical Training in Agriculture.” September 12. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
Metzger, Thurl. 1951. “Korean Report.” September 20. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
Metzger, Thurl. 1952. “Newsletter.” August 5. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
Shaughnessy, W. K. 1952. Letter to Heifer Project Committee. July 24. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
Thone, Frank. 1949. “Climatic Doubles Are Charted.” Science Newsletter (August 13):106–7. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 4. UNARMS, New York.
United Nations Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea. 1951. “Interim Report and Resolution Adopted by the Commission at Its Seventy-First Meeting on 29 April.” UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 1. UNARMS, New York.
United Nations General Assembly. 1950. “Resolution 410.V: Relief and Rehabilitation of Korea.” In Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly during Its Fifth Session, 31–35. https://unarchives.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/nr006008.pdf (accessed December 17, 2017).
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952a. “Project Agreement, Project No. 1 (UNK-1), Heifer Project.” January 5. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952b. “Project Agreement, UNKRA Project No. 1 (UNK-1), Heifer Project.” February 25. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 2. UNARMS, New York.
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952c. “UNKRA and Heifer Project Committee to Send 210,000 Hatching Eggs to Korea.” Press Release KQR/299, March 28. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952d. “Project Agreement, UNKRA Project No. 18, Improved Seed Imports.” April 7. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 2. UNARMS, New York.
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952e. “Standard Operating Procedure, Number 13.” June 9. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 1. UNARMS, New York.
UNKRA (United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency). 1952f. “UNKRA and Heifer Project Committee to Fly Pigs and Goats to Korea.” June 16. UNKRA Registry Files 526, box 20, folder 3. UNARMS, New York.
USNSC (United States National Security Council). 1948. A Report to the President by the National Security Council on the Position of the United States with Respect to Korea. April 2. National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/coldwar/documents/episode-5/02.pdf (accessed December 17, 2017).
You, Chan Yang. 1952. Letter to John B. Coulter. October 7. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 19, folder 5. UNARMS, New York.
Zehngraff, P. 1950a. Memorandum to Program Planning Committee. June 23. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 11. UNARMS, New York.
Zehngraff, P. 1950b. Memorandum to Director of Food and Agriculture Division, ECA. July 1. UNKRA Registry Files, series 526, box 20, folder 11. UNARMS, New York.
Brady, Lisa M. 2008. “Life in the DMZ: Turning a Diplomatic Failure into an Environmental Success.Diplomatic History 32(4):585611.
Brazinsky, Gregg. 2007. Nation Building in South Korea: Koreans, Americans, and the Making of a Democracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Burmeister, Larry L. 1988. Research, Realpolitik, and Development in Korea: The State and the Green Revolution. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Choi, Won-kyu. 2005. “The Legalization of Land Rights under the Great Han Empire.” In Landlords, Peasants, and Intellectuals in Modern Korea, eds. Kie-chung, Pang and Shin, Michael D., 91128. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University.
Cumings, Bruce. 1981–90. The Origins of the Korean War. 2 vols. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Cumings, Bruce. 2005. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. Rev. ed. New York: W.W. Norton.
Cumings, Bruce. 2010. The Korean War: A History. New York: Modern Library.
Fedman, David Abraham. 2015. “The Saw and the Seed: Japanese Forestry in Colonial Korea, 1895–1945.” PhD diss., Stanford University.
Gragert, Edwin H. 1994. Landownership under Colonial Rule: Korea's Japanese Experience, 1900–1935. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Hong, Sung-Chan. 2005. “The Emergence of New Types of Landlords in the Occupation Period.” In Landlords, Peasants, and Intellectuals in Modern Korea, eds. Kie-chung, Pang and Shin, Michael D., 175206. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University.
Hunter, Helen-Louise. 2008. “The Society and Its Environment.” In North Korea: A Country Study, ed. Worden, Robert L.. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
Hwang, Kyung Moon. 2016. Rationalizing Korea: The Rise of the Modern State, 1894–1945. Oakland: University of California Press.
Jeong, Su-Jong, Ho, Chang-Hoi, Choi, Sung-Deuk, Kim, Jinwon, Lee, Eun-Ju, and Gim, Hyeon-Ju. 2013. “Satellite Data-Based Phenological Evaluation of the Nationwide Reforestation of South Korea.PLoS ONE 8(3):e58900. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058900.
Kim, Yong-sop. 2005a. “The Two Courses of Agrarian Reform in Korea's Modernization.” In Landlords, Peasants, and Intellectuals in Modern Korea, eds. Kie-chung, Pang and Shin, Michael D., 2152. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University.
Kim, Yong-sop. 2005b. “The Landlord System and the Agricultural Economy during the Japanese Occupation Period.” In Landlords, Peasants, and Intellectuals in Modern Korea, eds. Kie-chung, Pang and Shin, Michael D., 131–74. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University.
Komeie, Taisaku. 2006. “Colonial Environmentalism and Shifting Cultivation in Korea: Japanese Mapping, Research, and Representation.Geographical Review of Japan 79(12):664–79.
Lee, Hoon Koo. 1936. Land Utilization and Rural Economy in Korea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lyons, Gene Martin. 1961. Military Policy and Economic Aid: The Korean Case, 1950–1953. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Seekins, Donald M. 1990. “The Society and Its Environment.” In South Korea: A Country Study, eds. Savada, Andrea Matles and Shaw, William. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
Stueck, William W. 2002. Rethinking the Korean War: A New Diplomatic and Strategic History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
UNARMS (United Nations Archives and Records Management Section). n.d. “The United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency: About UNKRA.” https://unarchives.wordpress.com/about-unkra/ (accessed October 25, 2016).
Wacaster, Susan. 2016a. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook—2014: North Korea [Advanced Release] 15.4. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Interior.
Wacaster, Susan. 2016b. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook—2014: Republic of Korea [Advanced Release] 15.7. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Interior.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0021-9118
  • EISSN: 1752-0401
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed