Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Time, Money, and the Weather: Ming China and the “Great Depression” of the Mid-Fifteenth Century

  • William S. Atwell

Extract

During the fifteenth century, especially during its middle decades, “almost all parts of the then-known world [i.e., Europe, the Middle East, and the economically advanced regions of Asia] experienced a deep recession. By then, the ‘state of the world’ was at a much lower level than it had reached in the early fourteenth century. During the depression of the fifteenth century, the absolute level of inter-societal trade dropped, currencies were universally debased (a sure sign of decreased wealth and overall productivity), and the arts and crafts were degraded” (Abu-Lughod 1993, 85; see also Lopez and Miskimin 1962; Lopez, Miskimin, and Udovitch 1970; Postan 1973, 41–48; Wallerstein 1974, 21–38; Munro 1998, 38–39). In much of Eurasia, the worst years of this “depression” probably ended sometime during the 1460s or 1470s. Over the next six or seven decades, economic conditions in many parts of the world improved significantly, reflected in dramatic increases in agricultural and handicraft production; in the volume of interregional and international trade; and, except for the western hemisphere where Afro-Eurasian diseases decimated native populations during the early sixteenth century, in demographic growth.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abru, Hafiz. 1970. A Persian Embassy to China. Translated by Maitra, K. M.. Reprint, New York: Paragon.
Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1988. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1993. “The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead End or Precursor?” In Islamic and European Expansion, edited by Adas, Michael. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Adshead, S. A. M. 1988. China in World History. New York: St. Martin's Press.
American Geophysical Union. 1992. Volcanism and Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Arakawa, Hidetoshi. 1957. “Three Great Famines in Japan.” Weather 12(7):211–17.
Arakawa, Hidetoshi. 1967. Kikin no rekishi (A history of famines). Tokyo: Shibundō.
Arez, Ilda Maria Azevedoi Coutinho Vasconcellos E Souza, and Jessie Mcnab. 1984. Portugal and Porcelain. Lisbon: Manuel A. Pacheo.
Ashtor, E. 1976. A Social and Economic History of the Middle East in the Middle Ages. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Atwell, William S. 2001. “Volcanism and Short-Term Climatic Change in East Asian and World History, c. 1200–1699.” Journal of World History 12(1):2998.
Barkan, Ömer Lûfti. 1970. “Research on the Ottoman Fiscal Surveys.” In Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by Cook, M. A.. London: Oxford University Press.
David, Birmingham, and Marks, Shula. 1977. “Southern Africa.” In The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 3, edited by Oliver, Roland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blaut, J. M., ed. 1992. 7492: The Debate on Colonialism, Eurocentrism, and History. Trenton, N.J: Africa World Press.
Borisenkov, E. P., and Pasetskii, V. M.. 1983. Ekstremalnye Prirodnye lavleniia v Russkikh Letopisiak vv. (Extreme natural phenomena in the Russian chronicles). Leningrad: Hydrometeorological Institute.
Bourke, Austin. 1985. “Climate and the Diseases and Pests of Agriculture.” In The Climatic Scene, edited by Tooley, M. J. and Sheail, G. M.. London: Allen and Unwin.
Briffa, K. R., Bartholin, T. S., Eckstein, D., Jones, P. D., Karlen, W., Schweingrüber, F. H., and Zetterberg, P.. 1990. “A 1,400-year Tree-ring Record of Summer Temperatures in Fennoscandia.” Nature 346:434–39.
Briffa, K. R., Jones, P. D., Schweingrüber, F. H., and Osborn, T. J.. 1998. “Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on Northern Hemisphere Summer Temperatures over the Past 6OO Years.” Nature 393:450–55.
Brook, Timothy. 1998. The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Brown, Delmer. 1951. Money Economy in Medieval Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Carswell, John. 19771978. “China and Islam: A Survey of the Coast of India and Ceylon.” Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society 42:2545.
Carswell, John. 1985. “Blue-and-White in China, Asia, and the Islamic World.” In Blue and White: Chinese Porcelain and Its Impact on the Western World edited by Carswell, John. Chicago: The University of Chicago and the David and Alfred Smart Gallery.
Chan, Albert. 1982. The Glory and Fall of the Ming Dynasty. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Chan, Hok-Lam. 1988. “The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te Reigns.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ch'en, T. T. 1963. Sino-Liu-chiuan Relations in the Nineteenth Century. Ph.D. diss., Indiana University.
Chittick, H. Neville. 1974. Kilwa: An Islamic Trading Center on the East African Coast. 2 vols. Nairobi: British Institution in East Africa.
Chittick, H. Neville. 1977. “The East Coast, Madagascar, and the Indian Ocean.” In The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 3, edited by Oliver, Roland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clavijo, Ruy Gonzalez De. 1928. Clavijo: Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403–1406. Translated by Strange, Guy Le. London: Routledge.
Jihong, Cole-Dai, Mosley-Thompson, Ellen, and Thompson, Lonnie G.. 1997. “Annually Resolved Southern Hemisphere Volcanic History from Two Antarctic Ice Cores.” Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D14):16, 761–71.
Jihong, Cole-Dai, Mosley-Thompson, Ellen, Wright, Shawn P., and Thompson, Lonnie G.. 2000. “A 4100-year Record of Explosive Volcanism from an East Antarctica Ice Core.” Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D19):24, 431–41.
Rosanne, D'Arrigo, Jacoby, Gordon, Frank, David, Pederson, Neil, Cook, Edward, Buckely, Brendan, Nachin, Baatarbileg, Mijddorj, R., and Dugarav, Chultamin. 2001. “1738 Years of Mongolian Temperature Variability Inferred from a Tree-ring Width Chronology of Siberian Pine.” Geophysical Research Letters 28(3):543–46.
Day, John. 1979. “The Great Bullion Famine of the Fifteenth Century.” Past and Present 79:354.
Deyell, John. 1983. “The China Connection: Problems of Silver Supply in Medieval Bengal.” In Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds, edited by Richards, J. F.. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Digby, Simon. 1982. “The Currency System.” In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. 1, edited by Rayachaudhuri, Tapan and Habib, Irfan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dreyer, Edward L. 1982. Early Ming China: A Political History, 1355–1433. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Eddy, John A. 1997. “The ‘Maunder Minimum’: Sunspots and Climate in the Reign of Louis XIV.” In The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century, 2d ed., edited by Parker, Geoffrey and Smith, Lesley M.. London: Routledge.
Fagan, Brian. 2000. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1800. New York: Basic Books.
Fang, Chaoying. 1973–74. “Some Notes on the Porcelain of the Cheng-t'ung Period.” Archives of Asian Art 27:2535.
Farmer, Edward L. 1976. Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Finlay, Robert. 1991. “The Treasure Ships of Zheng He: Chinese Maritime Imperialism in the Age of Discovery.” Terra Incognita, 23:112.
Finlay, Robert. 1998. “The Pilgrim Art: The Culture of Porcelain in World History.” Journal of World History 9:141–87.
Fletcher, Joseph. 1968. “China and Central Asia, 1368–1884.” In The Chinese World Order, edited by Fairbank, John K.. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Fletcher, Joseph. 1985. “Integrative History: Parallels and Interconnections in the Early Modern Period.” Journal of Turkish Studies 9:3757.
Frank, Andre Gunder, and Gills, Barry K.. 1993. “World System Economic Cycles and Hegemonial Shift to Europe 100 B.c. to 1500 A.D.” Journal of European Economic History 22(1):155–83.
Yillng, Fu. 1986. Ming-Qing shidai shangren ji shangye ziben (Merchants and commercial capital during the Ming and Qing periods). Reprint, Taibei: Gufeng.
Galloway, Patrick. 1986. “Long-term Fluctuations in Climate and Population.” Population and Development Review 12:124.
Geiss, James. 1988a. “The Cheng-te Reign, 1506–1521.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Geiss, James. 1988b. “The Chia-ching Reign, 1522–1566.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gill, Richardson Benedict. 2000. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Goodrich, L. Carrington, and Fang, Chaoying, eds. 1976. Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368–1644. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gray, Basil. 1964–66. “The Export of Chinese Porcelain to India.” Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society 36:2136.
John, Gribbin, and Lamb, H. H.. 1978. “Climatic Change in Historical Times.” In Climatic Change, edited by Gribbin, John. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grove, Jean M. 1988. The Little Ice Age. London: Methuen.
Yanwu, Gu. 1936. Tianxia junguo libing shu (An economic and strategic geography of the empire). Shanghai: Shangwu yinshu guan.
Yingtai, Gu. 1956. Mingshi jishi benmo (A topical history of the Ming period). 4 vols. Taibei: Shangwu yinshu guan.
Guy, John S. 1986. Oriental Trade Ceramics in South-East Asia, Ninth to Sixteenth Centuries. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Habib, Irfan. 1982. “Monetary System and Prices.” In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. 1, edited by Rayachaudhuri, Tapan and Habib, Irfan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, John Whitney. 1990. “The Muromachi Bakufu.” In The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 3, edited by Yamamura, Kozo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hammer, C. U. 1977. “Past Volcanism Revealed by Greenland Ice Sheet Impurities.” Nature 270:482–86.
Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., and Dansgaard, W.. 1980. “Greenland Ice-sheet Evidence of Post-glacial Volcanism and Its Climate Impact.” Nature 288:230–35.
Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., and Dansgaard, W.. 1981. “Past Volcanism and Climate Revealed by Greenland Ice Cores.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 11:310.
Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W., Gundestrup, N., Johnsen, S. J., and Reeh, N.. 1978. “Dating of Greenland Ice Cores by Flow Models, Isotopes, Volcanic Debris, and Continental Dust.” Journal of Glaciology 20(82):326.
Handler, Paul. 1989. “The Effect of Volcanic Aerosols on Global Climate.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 37:233–49.
Hatcher, John. 1977. Plague, Population, and the English Economy, 1348–1530. London: Macmillan.
Heijdra, Martin. 1998. “The Socio-Economie Development of Rural China During the Ming.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 8, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Herring, R. S. 1979. “Hydrology and Chronology: The Rodeh Nileometer as an Aid in Dating Interlacustrine History.” In Chronology, Migration, and Drought in Interlacustrine Africa, edited by Webster, J. B.. New York: Africana Publishing Company.
Hill, Christopher. 1978. Reformation to Industrial Revolution. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
Ho, Ping-Ti. 1959. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hrbek, Ivan. 1977. “Egypt, Nubia, and the Eastern Deserts.” In The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 3, edited by Oliver, Roland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huang, Ray. 1974. Taxation and Governmental Finance in Sixteenth-Century Ming China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huang, Ray. 1998. “The Ming Fiscal Administration.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 8, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hudson, G. F. 1931. Europe and China. London: Arnold.
Hull, Richard W. 1976. African Cities and Towns Before the European Conquest. New York: Norton.
Inalcik, Halil. 1994. “The Ottoman State: Economy and Society, 1300–1600.” In An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914, edited by Inalcik, Halil with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chōichi, Izumi. 1979. Sakai to Hakata: Sengoku no gōshō (Sakai and Hakata: notable merchants of the Warring States period). Osaka: Sōgensha.
Kawazoe, Shōji. 1990. “Japan and East Asia.” In The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 3, edited by Yamamura, Kozo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kirkman, James S. 1970. “The Coast of Kenya as a Factor in the Trade and Culture of the Indian Ocean.” In Sociétés et Compagnies de Commerce en orient et dans l'Ocean Indien, edited by Mollat, Michel. Paris: SEVPEN.
Atsushi, Kobata. 1943. Nihon kahei ryūtsūshi (A history of monetary circulation in Japan). Tokyo: Dōkō shoin.
Atsushi, Kobata. 1969. Chūsei Nisshi tsūkō bōekishi no kenkyū (Studies on the history of commercial relations between Japan and China during the medieval period). Tokyo: Dōkō shoin.
Atsushi, Kobata. 1976. Kingin bōekishi no kenkyū (Studies on the history of trade in gold and silver). Kyoto: Hōsei daigaku shuppan kyoku.
Kanhaenghoe, KojÔn, ed. 1957. Chŭngbo munhŭn pigo (A revised and expanded collection of documentary materials). 2 vols. Seoul: Tonghae.
Kondo, Junsei. 1988. “Volcanic Eruptions, Cool Summers, and Famines in the Northeastern Part of Japan.” Journal of Climate 1:775–88.
Krahl, Regina. 1986. Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum. 3 vols. London: Sotheby's Publications.
Labib, Subhi. 1970. “Egyptian Commercial Policy in the Middle Ages.” In Studies on the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by Cook, M. A.. London: Oxford University Press.
Ladurie, Emmanuelle Roy. 1981. The Mind and Method of the Historian. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lamb, H. H. 1977. Climate Present, Past and Future. Vol. 2. London: Methuen.
Lamb, H. H. 1982. Climate, History, and the Modern World. London: Methuen.
Lentz, Thomas W., and Lowry, Glenn D.. 1989. Timur and the Princely Vision. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Lieberman, Victor. 1999. “Transcending East-West Dichotomies: State and Culture Formation in Six Ostensibly Disparate Areas.” In Beyond Binary Histories: Re-imagining Eurasia to c. 1830, edited by Lieberman, Victor. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Livi-Bacci, Massimo. 1992. A Concise History of World Population. Translated by Carl Ipsen. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
Lo, Jung-Pang. 1958. “The Decline of the Early Ming Navy.” Oriens Extremus 5:149–68.
Lo, Jung-Pang. 1976. “The Termination of the Early Ming Naval Expeditions.” In Papers in Honor of Professor Woodbridge Bingham, edited by Parsons, James B.. San Francisco: Chinese Materials and Research Aids Service Center.
Lopez, Robert Sabatino. 1952. “China Silk in Europe in the Yuan Period.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 72:7276.
Lopez, Robert S., and Miskimin, Harry A.. 1962. “The Economic Depression of the Renaissance.” The Economic History Review, 2d ser., 14:408–26.
Robert, Lopez, Miskimin, Harry, and Udovitch, Abraham. 1970. “England to Egypt, 1350–1500: Long-term Trends and Long-distance Trade.” In Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day, edited by Cook, M. A.. London: Oxford University Press.
Ma, Debin. 1999. “The Great Silk Exchange: How the World was Connected and Developed.” In Pacific Centuries: Pacific and Pacific Rim History since the Sixteenth Century, edited by Flynn, Dennis O.Frost, Lionel, and Latham, A. J. H.. London: Routledge.
Huan, Ma. 1970. Ying-yai sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores. Translated by Mills, J. V. G.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mackay, Angus. 1977. Spain in the Middle Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 1000–1500. London: Macmillan.
Mackay, Angus. 1981. “Climate and Popular Unrest in Late Medieval Castile.” In Climate and History: Studies in Past Climates and their Impact on Man, edited by Wigley, T. M. L., Ingram, M. J., and Farmer, G.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Michael, Mann, Bradley, Raymond S., and Hughes, Malcolm K.. 1998. “Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing over the Past Six Centuries.” Nature 392:779–87.
Javier, Martín-Vide, and Barriendos-Vallvé, Mariano. 1995. “The Use of Rogation Ceremony Records in Climatic Reconstruction: A Case Study from Catalonia (Spain).” Climatic Change 30:201–21.
Colin, McEvedy and Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
McGovern, Thomas H. 1981. “The Economics of Extinction in Norse Greenland.” In Climate and History: Studies in Past Climates and their Impact on Man, edited by Wigley, T. M. L., Ingram, M. J., and Farmer, G.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McNeill, William H. 1976. Plagues and Peoples. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
Meilink-Roelofz, M. A. P. 1962. Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago Between 1500 and About 1650. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
Meskill, John. 1965. Ch'oe P'u's Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Miskimin, Harry A. 1977. The Economy of Later Renaissance Europe, 1460–1600. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.
Ichisada, Miyazaki. 1963. “Chūgoku kinsei gin mondai ryakusetsu” (Brief remarks on the question of silver in early modern China). In Ajiashi kenkyū, vol. 3, edited by Ichisada, Miyazaki. Kyoto: Tōyōshi kenkyükai.
Ichisada, Miyazaki. 1978. Chūgoku shi (A history of China). 2 vols. Tokyo: Iwanami.
Momose, Hiromu. 1935. “Mindai no ginsan to gaikoku gin ni tsuite” (On silver mines and foreign silver during the Ming period). Seikyū gakusō 19:90147.
Monzier, Michel, Robin, Claude, and Eissen, Jean-Philippe. 1994. “Kuwae (1425 A.D.): The Forgotten Caldera.” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 59:207–18.
Morgan, David. 1986. The Mongols. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Morgan, David. 1988. Medieval Persia, 1047–1797. New York: Longman.
Mote, F. W. 1974. “The T'u-mu Incident of 1449.” In Chinese Ways in Warfare, edited by Kerman, Frank A. Jr., and Fairbank, John K.. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mote, F. W. 1999. Imperial China, 900–1800. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mudge, Jean McClure. 1985. “Hispanic Blue-and-White Faience in the Chinese Style.” In Blue and White: Chinese Porcelain and Its Impact on the Western World, edited by Carswell, John. Chicago: The University of Chicago and the David and Alfred Smart Gallery.
Munro, John. 1983. “Bullion Flows and Monetary Contraction in Late Medieval England and the Low Countries.” In Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds, edited by Richards, J. F.. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Munro, John. 1998. “Precious Metals and the Origins of the Price Revolution Reconsidered: the Conjuncture of Monetary and Real Forces in the European Inflation of the Early to Mid-Sixteenth Century.” In Monetary History in Global Perspective, 1500–1808, edited by Nuñez, Clara Eugeia. Seville: Fundación Fomento de la Historia Económica.
Keiji, Nagahara. 1974. Nihon no rekishi. Vol. 10, Gekokujō no jidai (A history of Japan. Vol. 10, The age of “inferiors overthrowing superiors”). Tokyo: Chūo koronsha.
Keiji, Nagahara. 1988. Taikei Nihon no rekishi. Vol. 6, Nairan to minshū seiki (An outline history of Japan. Vol. 6, The century of internal strife and the people). Tokyo: Shogakkan.
Yoichlrō, Nakajima. 1976. Kikin Nihonshi (A history of Japanese famines). Tokyo: Yūzankaku.
Nef, J. U. 1941. “Silver Production in Central Europe, 1450–1618.” Journal of Political Economy 49:575–91.
Newhall, Christopher G., and Self, Stephen. 1982. “The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism.” Journal of Geophysical Research 87(C2):1231–38.
John Julius, Norwich. 1996. Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Pamuk, Şevket. 1994. “Money in the Ottoman Empire, 1326–1914.” In An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914, edited by Inalcik, Haul with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pedgley, D. E. and Symmons, P. M.. 1968. “Weather and the Locust Upsurge.” Weather 23:484–92.
Xinwei, Peng. 1965. Zhongguo huobi shi (A history of Chinese currency). 3d ed.Shanghai: Renmin chuban she.
Perkins, Dwight H. 1969. Agricultural Development in China, 1368–1968. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
Perlin, Frank. 1990. “Financial Institutions and Business Practices Across the Euro-Asian Interface: Comparative and Structural Considerations.” In The European Discovery of the World and Its Economic Effects on Pre-Industrial Society, edited by Pohl, Hans. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Peterson, Willard J. 1979. Bitter Gourd: Fang I-chih and the Impetus for Intellectual Change. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pollack, James B., Toon, Owen B., Sagan, Carl, Summers, Audrey, Baldwin, Betty, and Camp, Warren Van. 1976. “Volcanic Explosions and Climatic Change: A Theoretical Assessment.” Journal of Geophysical Research 81(6): 1071–83.
Pope, John Alexander. 1956. Chinese Porcelain from the Ardebil Shrine. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
Pope, John Alexander. 1970. Fourteenth-Century Blue-and-White: A Group of Chinese Porcelains in the Topkapu Sarayi Müzesi, Istanbul. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
Postan, M. M. 1973. Essays on Medieval Agriculture and General Problems of the Medieval Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hansheng, Quan (Ch'Üan Han-Sheng). 1966. “Mingdai yinke yu yinchan e” (Taxes on silver mining and silver mining quotas in during the Ming period). Xinya shuyuan xueshu miankan. 9:245–67.
Hansheng, Quan (Ch'Üan Han-Sheng). 1967. “Song-Ming jian baiyin goumai li di yanbian ji qi yuanyin” (Fluctuations in the purchasing power of silver and their causes during the Song, Yuan, and Ming periods). Xinya xuebao. 8(1):157–85.
Quinn, William H. 1992. “A Study of Southern Oscillation-related Climatic Activity for A.D. 622–1990 Incorporating Nile River Flood Data.” In El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, edited by Diaz, Henry F. and Markgraf, Vera. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rampino, M., and Self, S.. 1984. “Sulfur-rich Volcanic Eruptions and Stratospheric Aerosols.” Nature 310:677–79.
Ray, Haraprasad. 1987. “An Analysis of the Chinese Voyages into the Indian Ocean During the Early Ming and their Raison d'Etre.” China Report 23(1):6587.
Ray, Haraprasad. 1993. Trade and Diplomacy in India-China Relations: A Study of Bengal During the Fifteenth Century. Radiant Publishers: New Delhi.
Rayachaudhuri, Tapan. 1982. “Non-Agricultural Production in Mughal India.” In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. 1, edited by Rayachaudhuri, Tapan and Habib, Irfan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reid, Anthony. 1992. “Economic and Social Change, c. 1400–1800.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol. 1, edited by Tarling, Nicholas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reid, Anthony. 1993. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450–1680. Vol. 2, Expansion and Crisis. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Richards, J. F. 1983. “Outflows of Precious Metals from Early Islamic India.” In Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds, edited by Richards, J. F.. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Claude, Robin, Monzier, Michel, and Eissen, Jean Philippe. 1994. “Formation of the Mid-Fifteenth Century Kuwae Caldera (Vanuatu) by an Initial Hydroclastic and Subsequent Ignimbritic Eruption.” Bulletin of Volcanolgy 56:170–83.
Robinson, David. 1999. “Politics, Force and Ethnicity in Ming China: Mongols and the Abortive Coup of 1461.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 59(1):79123.
Robinson, David. 2001. Bandits, Eunuchs, and the Son of Heaven. Honolulu: The University of Hawai'i Press.
Robock, Alan. 2000. “Volcanic Eruptions and Climate.” Review of Geophysics 38(2):191219.
Alan, Robock, and Free, Melissa P.. 1995. “Ice Cores as an Index of Global Volcanism from 1850 to the Present.” Journal of Geophysical Research 100(D6):11, 549–67.
Alan, Robock, and Free, Melissa P.. 1996. “The Volcanic Record in Ice Cores for the Past 2000 Years.” In Climatic Variations and Forcing Mechanism of the Last 2000 Years, edited by Jones, Philip D., Bradley, Raymond S., and Jouzel, Jean. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Rossabi, Morris. 1970. “The Tea and Horse Trade with Inner Asia During the Ming.” Journal of Asian Studies 4(2):135–65.
Rossabi, Morris. 1975. China and Inner Asia: From 1368 to the Present Day. London: Thames and Hudson.
Rossabi, Morris. 1983. “A Translation of Ch'en Ch'eng's Hsi-yü fan-kuo chih.” Ming Studies 17:4959.
Rossabi, Morris. 1990. “The Decline of the Central Asian Caravan Trade.” In The Rise of the Merchant Empires: Long-distance Trade in the Early Modern World, edited by Tracy, James D.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rossabi, Morris. 1998. “The Ming and Inner Asia.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 8, edited by Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sahillioǧlu, Halil. 1983. “The Role of International Monetary and Metal Movements in Ottoman Monetary History.” In Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds, edited by Richards, J. F.. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Sakamaki, Shunzō. 1964. “Ryūkyū and Southeast Asia.” Journal of Asian Studies 23(3):383–9.
Sakuma, Shigeo. 1953. “Mindai kaigai shibōeki no rekishiteki haikei” (The historical background of private maritime trade during the Ming period). Shigaku zasshi 62(1): 1530.
Taketoshi, Satō. 1993. Chūgoku saigaishi nenpyō (A chronology of natural disasters in China). Tokyo: Kokusho kankokai.
Scanlon, George T. 1970. “Egypt and China: Trade and Imitation.” In Islam and the Trade of Asia, edited by Richards, D. S.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Chris, Scarre, ed. 1988. Past Worlds: The Times Atlas of Archaeology. Maplewood, N.J.: Hammond.
Scheurleer, D. F. Lunsingh. Chinese Export Porcelain. New York: Pitman.
Shoshan, Boaz. 1982. “From Silver to Copper: Monetary Changes in Fifteenth-Century Egypt.” Studia Islamica 56:97116.
Shoshan, Boaz. 1983. “Money Supply and Grain Prices in Fifteenth-Century Egypt.” Economic History Review, 2d ser., 36(1):4767.
Shoshan, Boaz. 1986. “Exchange Rate Policies in Fifteenth-Century Egypt.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 29(1):2851.
Shoshan, Boaz. 1993. Popular Culture in Medieval Cairo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Simkin, Tom and Siebert, Lee. 1994. Volcanoes of the World. 2d ed.Tucson: Geoscience Press.
Singh, Saran. 1986. The Encyclopedia of the Coins of Malayasia, Singapore, and Brunei, 1400–1986. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Numismatic Society.
Zhenghai, Song, ed. 1992. Zhongguo gudai zhong da ziran zaihan han yichang nianbiao zongji (A comprehensive chronology of significant natural disasters and unusual occurrences in ancient China). Guangzhou: Guangdong jiaoyou chuban she.
Spufford, Peter. 1988. Money and Its Use in Medieval Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kurayoshi, Takara. 1993. Ryūkyū Ōkoku (The kingdom of Ryūkyū). Tokyo: Iwanami.
Tanaka, Takeo. 1977. “Japan's Relations with Overseas Countries.” In Japan in the Muromachi Age, edited by Hall, John W. and Takeshi, Toyoda. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Takanobu, Terada. 1984. Chūgoku no dai kōkaisha: Tei Wa (China's great navigator: Zheng He). Tokyo: Kiyomizu shoin.
Thompson, L. G. 1991. “Ice-core Records with Emphasis on the Global Record of the Last 2000 Years.” In Global Changes of the Past, edited by Bradley, Raymond S.. Boulder, Colo.: UCAR/Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies.
Thompson, L. G. 1995. “Ice Core Evidence from Peru and China.” In Climate Since A.D. 1500, edited by Bradley, Raymond S. and Jones, Philip D.. Rev. ed., London: Routledge.
Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E. and Thompson, P. A.. 1992. “Reconstructing Interannual Climate Variability from Tropical and Subtropical Ice-core Records.” In El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, edited by Diaz, Henry F. and Markgraf, Vera. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
T'ien, Ju-K'Ang. 1974. “Causes of the Decline in China's Overseas Trade Between the Fifteenth and Eighteenth Century.” Papers in Far Eastern History 25:3144.
Shin'En, Tomimura. 1960. “Ryū;kyū ni okeru Min-Nihon to no kankei” (Relations between the Ming dynasty and Japan in the Ryūkyū Islands). Rekishi kyōiku 10:1218.
Tong, James W. 1991. Disorder Under Heaven: Collective Violence in the Ming Dynasty. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry. 1996. The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Ts'ao, Yung-Ho. 1982. “Pepper Trade in East Asia.” T'oung Pao 68(4 and 5):221–47.
Denis, Twichett, and Grimm, Tilemann. 1988. “The Cheng-t'ung, Ching-t'ai and T'ien-shun Reigns, 1435–1464.” In The Cambridge History of China, vol. 7, edited by Mote, Frederick.W. and Twitchett, Denis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Utterström, Gustaf. 1955. “Climatic Fluctuations and Population Problems in Early Modern History.” The Scandanavian Economic History Review 111(1):347.
Vilar, Pierre. 1976. A History of Gold and Money, 1450–1920. London: NLB.
Von Glahn, Richard. 1996. Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Sei, Wada. 1960. Minshi shokkashi yakuchū (An annotated translation of the “Economic Treatise” of the Ming dynastic history). 2 vols. Tokyo: Tōyō bunko.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
Wang, Gung-Wu. 1968. “Early Ming Relations with Southeast Asia: A Background Essay.” In The Chinese World Order, edited by Fairbank, John K.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wang, Gung-Wu. 1991. China and the Overseas Chinese. Singapore: Time Academic Press.
Wang, Gung-Wu. 1992. Community and Nation: China, Southeast Asia, and Australia. St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
Wang, I-T'Ung. 1952. Official Relations between China and Japan, 1368–1549. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wedel, Waldo R. 1986. Central Plains Prehistory. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Wexler, Henry. 1952. “Volcanoes and World Climate.” Scientific American 4:7480.
Whitmore, John K. 1983. “Vietnam and the Monetary Flow of Eastern Asia, Thirteenth to Eighteenth Centuries.” In Precious Metals in the Later Medieval and Early Modern Worlds, edited by Richards, J. F.. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.
Whitmore, John K. 1999. “Literati Culture and Integration in Dai Viet, c. 1430–c. 1840.” In Beyond Binary Histories: Re-imagining Eurasia to c. 1830, edited by Lieberman, Victor. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Wicks, Robert S. 1986. “Monetary Developments in Java between the Ninth and Sixteenth Centuries: A Numismatic Perspective.” Indonesia 42:5965.
Xia, Xie. 1962. Xinjiao Ming tongjian (A revised edition of the comprehensive mirror of the Ming period). 6 vols. Taibei: Shijie shuju.
Yamamura, Kozo. 1981. “Returns on Unification: Economic Growth in Japan, 155O–165O.” In Japan Before Tokugaiva: Political Consolidation and Economic Growth, 1500 to 1650, edited by Hall, John Whitney, Keiji, Nagahara, and Yamamura, Kozo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Zenkovsky, Serge A., trans. 1982–89. The Nikonian Chronicles. 5 vols. Princeton: Kingston Press.
Tingyu, Zhang, ed. 1974. Mingshi (Ming dynastic history). 28 vols. Beijing: Xinhua.
Zielinski, G. A., Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Whitlow, S., Twicker, M. S., Morrison, M., Meese, D. A., Gow, A. J., and Alley, R. B.. 1994. “Record of Volcanism since 7000 B.c. from the GISP2 Greenland Ice Core and Implications for the Volcano-Climate System.” Science 264:948–52.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed