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The Chartists and the Constitution: Revisiting British Popular Constitutionalism

  • Josh Gibson
Abstract

Despite having a powerful influence on the historiography of radicalism and nineteenth-century politics for the past several decades, the language of the constitution has not recently received scholarly attention. In Chartist and radical historiography, the constitution is usually treated as a narrative of national political development. This article extends the horizons of Chartist constitutionalism by exploring its similarities with American constitutionalism. By doing so, it also opens up questions regarding the ideas of the movement. Like the Americans sixty years before, the Chartists were confronted by a parliament that they believed had superseded its constitutional authority. This perception was informed by a belief that the constitution rested on the authority of the fixed principles of fundamental law, which they argued placed limits beyond which Parliament had no power to reach. As a result, the Chartists imagined that the British constitution functioned like a written constitution. To support this claim, they drew on a sophisticated interpretation of English law that argued that the common law was closely related to natural law.

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1 Northern Star, 1 June 1839.

2 Belchem, John, “Republicanism, Popular Constitutionalism and the Radical Platform in Early Nineteenth-Century England,” Social History 6, no. 1 (January 1981): 132 ; Epstein, James, “The Constitutionalist Idiom,” in Radical Expression: Political Language, Ritual, and Symbol in England, 1790–1850 (Oxford, 1994), 328 ; Taylor, Miles, The Decline of British Radicalism, 1847–1860 (Oxford, 1995), 59 , 100; Joyce, Patrick, Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1840–1914 (Cambridge, 1991); Vernon, James, ed., Rereading the Constitution: New Narratives in the Political History of England's Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1996).

3 Hilton, Boyd, A Mad, Bad and Dangerous People? England 1783–1846 (Oxford, 2006), 347 .

4 The classic account is Pocock, J. G. A., The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law; a Study of English Historical Thought in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1957).

5 [Hulme, Obadiah], A Historical Work on the English Constitution (Dublin, 1771); Burgh, James, Political Disquisitions, 3 vols. (London, 1774).

6 Cartwright, John, Take Your Choice! representation and respect, imposition and contempt: annual parliaments and liberty, long parliaments and slavery (London, 1777).

7 Hill, Christopher, “The Norman Yoke,” in Puritanism and Revolution: Studies in the Interpretation of the English Revolution of the Seventeenth Century (New York, 1997), 46111 .

8 Hansard Parliamentary Debates, vol. 62, cc. 1373–81, 2 May 1842, Hansard Online, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1842/may/02/the-peoples-charter-petition.

9 Epstein, “Constitutionalist Idiom,” 26.

10 Jones, Gareth Stedman, “Rethinking Chartism,” in Languages of Class: Studies in English Working-Class History, 1832–1982 (Cambridge, 1983), 90178 . See also, idem, Anglo-Marxism, Neo-Marxism and the Discursive Approach to History,” in Was bleibt von marxistischen Perspektiven in der Geschichtsforschung, ed. Ludtke, Alf (Gottingen, 1997), 148209 , at 177–82. For an abridged version of this chapter, see Jones, Gareth Stedman, “The Determinist Fix: Some Obstacles to the Further Development of the Linguistic Approach to History in the 1990,” History Workshop Journal 42 (Autumn 1996): 1935 .

11 Epstein, James and Belchem, John, “The Nineteenth-Century Gentleman Leader Revisited,” Social History 22, no. 2 (May 1997): 174–93, at 180; Belchem, John, “Radical Language and Ideology in Early Nineteenth Century England: The Challenge of the Platform,” Albion 20, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 247–59, at 257.

12 Grotke, Kelly and Prutsch, Markus, “Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power: Nineteenth-Century Experiences,” in Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power, ed. Grotke, and Prutsch, (Oxford, 2015), 319 , at 5–6; Mirow, M. C., “The Age of Constitutions in the Americas,” Law and History Review 32, no. 2 (May 2014): 229–35, at 229.

13 Wood, Gordon, “The Origins of American Constitutionalism,” in The Idea of America (New York, 2011), 171–88, at 173–74.

14 Billias, George Athan, American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776–1989: A Global Perspective (New York, 2009), 4 .

15 Colley, Linda, “Empires of Writing: Britain, America and Constitutions, 1776–1848,” Law and History Review 32, no. 2 (May 2014): 237–66, at 237.

16 Ibid, 237–38; Hill, Henry, “The Constitutions of Continental Europe: 1789–1813,” Journal of Modern History 8, no. 1 (March 1936): 8294 , at 82–84; Armitage, David, Declaration of Independence: A Global History (Cambridge, MA, 2007), 103–5.

17 Saunders, Robert, “Parliament and the People: The British Constitution in the Long Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Modern European History 6, no. 1 (January 2008): 7287 , at 76.

18 Colley, “Empires of Writing,” 254–259. See also, Guilluy, Thibault, “Visions of Constitutionalism: The Implementation of Representative Institutions in the British Colonies,” in Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power: Nineteenth-Century Experiences, ed. Grotke, Kelly and Prutsch, Markus, (Oxford, 2014), 281–99; Paul McHugh, “‘The Most Decorous Veil which Legal Ingenuity Can Weave’: The British Annexation of New Zealand,” in Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power, 300–20.

19 Colley, “Empires of Writing,” 249–52.

20 Thomas Paine, The Rights of Man, Part the Second (1792), 194 and, more generally, chap. 4, https:// www.ucc.ie/archive/hdsp/Paine_Rights_of_Man.pdf.

21 Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class (London, 1968), 84110 ; Vernon, “Notes Towards an Introduction,” in Re-Reading the Constitution, 1–22.

22 Vernon, James, Politics and the People: Politics and the People: a Study in English Political Culture, c. 1815–1867 (Cambridge, 1993), 306 ; Epstein, “Constitutionalist Idiom,” 5; Gurney, Peter, “The Democratic Idiom: Languages of Democracy in the Chartist Movement,” Journal of Modern History 86, no. 3 (September 2014): 566602 , at 356; Chase, Malcolm, “Paine, Spence, Chartism and ‘The Real Rights of Man,’” in Thomas Spence: Poor Man's Revolutionary, ed. Bonnett, Alastair and Armstrong, Keith (London, 2014), 1325 , at 14.

23 For example, Royle, Edward, Revolutionary Britannia? Reflections on the Threat of Revolution in Britain, 1798–1848 (Manchester, 2000), 145 .

24 Ben-Israel, Hedva, English Historians on the French Revolution (Cambridge, 1968), 116 .

25 Ibid, 117; Jones, Gareth Stedman, “The Redemptive Power of Violence? Carlyle, Marx and Dickens,” History Workshop Journal 65, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 122 , at 3.

26 Dickinson, H. T., “The Eighteenth-Century Debate on the ‘Glorious Revolution,’History 61, no. 201 (February 1976): 2945 , at 43.

27 Riley, Patrick, “Social Contract and Its Critics,” in The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought, ed. Goldie, Mark and Wolker, Robert (Cambridge, 2006), 347–76, at 374. See also, Iain Hampsher-Monk, “British Radicalism and the Anti-Jacobins,” in The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought, 660–87, at 673–77.

28 Pocock, J. G. A., “Burke and the Ancient Constitution––A Problem in the History of Ideas,” Historical Journal 3, no. 2 (June 1960): 125–43.

29 Lamb, Robert, Thomas Paine and the Idea of Human Rights (Cambridge, 2015), 94 .

30 Cooper, Thomas, Address to the Jury by Thomas Cooper (Leicester, 1843), 2 .

31 Chase, Chartism, 8. See also, Saunders, “British Constitution,” 75.

32 Cooper, Address, 2.

33 Taylor, Miles, “The Six Points: Chartism and the Reform of Parliament,” in The Chartist Legacy, ed. Ashton, Owen, Fyson, Robert, and Roberts, Stephen (Rendlesham, 1999), 123 , at 11–13.

34 The People's Charter; Being an Outline of An Act to Provide for the Just Representation of the People of Great Britain in the Common House of Parliament (London, 1838), 2 .

35 Hilton, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People?, 620.

36 Northern Star, 27 April 1844.

37 Northern Star, 1 August 1840, 27 February 1841, 16 September 1843, 27 April 1844, and 20 May 1848.

38 Ibid., 1 August 1840.

39 Yeo, Eileen, “Some Practices and Problems of Chartist Democracy,” in The Chartist Experience: Studies in Working-Class Radicalism and Culture, 1830–60, ed. Epstein, James and Thompson, Dorothy (London, 1982), 345–80, at 364–65; Thompson, Dorothy, The Early Chartists (London, 1971), 28 .

40 For the Northern Political Union's constitution, see Northern Star, 18 April 1840; for the constitution of the United Suffrage Central Committee of Scotland, see Northern Star, 31 August 1839; and for the delegate meeting that discussed and drafted it, Northern Star, 24 August 1839.

41 Northern Star, 1 June 1839. Richardson was possibly referencing St. Paul's statement that the law was “written in the hearts” of the Gentiles (Romans 2:12–15), which was foundational to Augustine natural law theory.

42 Northern Liberator, 12 January 1839.

43 Postema, Gerald, “The Philosophy of the Common Law,” in The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence, ed. Coleman, Jules and Shapiro, Scott (Oxford, 2004), 588622 , at 590.

44 Blackstone, William, Commentaries on the Law of England, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1765), 1:68.

45 Clark, J. C. D., The Language of Liberty: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World, 1660–1832 (Cambridge, 1993), 3 ; Cromartie, Alan, The Constitutionalist Revolution: An Essay on the History of England, 1450–1642 (Cambridge, 2006).

46 Northern Star, 27 July 1839. O'Connor made a similar point at another trial in 1843, O'Connor, Feargus, The Trial of Feargus O'Connor (Manchester, 1843), ii.

47 Greenberg, Janelle, The Radical Face of the Ancient Constitution: St Edward's “Laws” in Early Modern Political Thought (Cambridge, 2001), 2728 .

48 Clark, Language of Liberty, 4.

49 Owers, George, “Common Law Jurisprudence and Ancient Constitutionalism in the Radical Thought of John Cartwright, Granville Sharp, and Capel Lofft,” Historical Journal 58, no. 1 (March 2015): 5173 .

50 Finnis, John, “Natural Law: The Classical Tradition,” in The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law, ed. Coleman, Jules and Shapiro, Scott (Oxford, 2002), 160 , at 1.

51 Horne, Thomas, Property Rights and Poverty: Political Arguments in Britain, 1605–1834 (Chapel Hill, 1990), 921 .

52 Ibid.; Waldron, Jeremy, “Decline of Natural Right,” in The Cambridge History of Nineteenth Century Philosophy, ed. Wood, Allen W. and Hahn, Songsuk Susan (Cambridge, 2012), 623–50, 625.

53 Claeys, Gregory, “Paine's Rights of Man and the Religiosity of Rights Doctrines,” in Revolutionary Moments: Reading Revolutionary Texts, ed. Hammersley, Rachel (London, 2015), 8592 .

54 Chartist Circular, 17 October 1840. Also quoted in A Tyne Chartist, The Way to Universal Suffrage (Newcastle, 1839), 22 .

55 Times, 6 April 1848.

56 Declaration of Independence, para. 2 (U.S., 1776), http://www.ushistory.org/documents/declaration.htm.

57 John Phillip Reid, Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 4 vols. (1986–93), 1:5.

58 Armitage, Declaration of Independence, 18, 63, 104.

59 Lovett, William, “Justice Safer than Expediency: An Appeal to the Middle Classes on the Question of the Suffrage (London, 1848),” in The Chartist Movement in Britain, 1838–1850, ed. Claeys, Gregory, 6 vols. (London, 2000), 5:81.

60 Chartist Circular, 1 February 1840; Northern Star, 1 July 1848; Fraternal Democrats, Address of the Fraternal Democrats Assembling in London to the Working Class of Great Britain and the United States (London, 1846), 1, 4; Turner, Michael, Liberty and Liberticide: The Role of America in Nineteenth-Century British Radicalism (Lanham, 2013), 5 .

61 Mark Matthew Trumbull, Thomas Jefferson: The Father of American Democracy. His Moral, Religious and Political Philosophy (Chicago, n. d.), 7.

62 Northern Star, 22 April 1844.

63 Ibid., 2 October 1847.

64 Clark, Language of Liberty, 3.

65 Northern Star, 27 July 1839.

66 “The Trial of the Rev. Mr. Stephens for Uttering Seditious Language. Before Mr. Justice Patterson,” in The Chartist Movement in Britain, 1:376–77. Stephens also quoted Willoughby Bertie, John Somers, William Paley, John Locke, Bracton, Bishop Antony Ellys, Bishop Richard Hurd, and John Cartwright.

67 “The Trial of the Rev. Mr. Stephens,” 376; Blackstone, Commentaries, 1:41.

68 Northern Star, 17 November 1838.

69 Hovell, Mark, History of the Chartist Movement (Manchester, 1921), 7898 ; Thompson, Dorothy, The Chartists (London, 1984), 3034 ; Gareth Stedman Jones, Rethinking Chartism,” 104, 151–54, 160; idem, An End of Poverty? A Historical Debate (London, 2004), 108 ; Taylor, Miles, “Rethinking the Chartists: Searching for a Synthesis in the Historiography of Chartism,” Historical Journal 39, no. 2 (June 1996): 479–95, at 485; Chase, Chartism, 17–19, 22–29.

70 For example, Cobbett, William, Legacy to Labourers; or, What is the Right Which Lords, Baronets, and Squires have to the Lands of England (London, 1834); idem, Cobbett's Poor Man's Friend: or, Useful Information and Advice for the Working Classes; in a Series of Letters, Addressed to the Working Classes of Preston (London, 1826); idem, Advice to Young Men, and (Incidentally) to Young Women, in the Middle and Higher Ranks of Life (London, 1829). See also Horne, Property Rights and Poverty, 228–34.

71 Cobbett, Legacy, 106–7.

72 Northern Star, 27 July 1839.

73 Hansard Parliamentary Debates, vol. 62, cc. 1373–81, 2 May 1842, Hansard Online, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1842/may/02/the-peoples-charter-petition

74 Ibid.

75 Southern Star, 15 March 1840. After he had been jailed, O'Brien requested a copy of Blackstone's Commentaries to read. Southern Star, 31 May 1840.

76 For example, Northern Liberator, 21 October, 16 December 1837; 2 June 1838; Cleave's Penny Gazette of Variety, 21 July 1838; Chartist Circular, 19 October 1839, 22 May 1841; Western Vindicator, 19 October 1839; Northern Star, 30 June 1838, 17 November 1838, 27 July 1839, 7 September 1839; Richardson, , The Right of Englishmen to Have Arms: As Shown in a Speech Delivered in the National Convention … (London, 1839), 710 , 11.

77 Northern Liberator, 16 December 1837.

78 Richardson, Reginald, The Rights of Woman: Exhibiting Her Natural, Civil, And Political Claims to a Share in the Legislative and Executive Power of the State (Edinburgh, 1840), 7 , 8, 11.

79 Clark, Language of Liberty, 3; Tuck, Richard, “Grotius and Seldon,” in The Cambridge History of Political Thought, 1450–1700, ed. Burns, J. H. (Cambridge, 1991), 499529 ; Alfred DuFour, “Pufendorf,” in The Cambridge History of Political Thought, 1450–1700, 561–88; James Tully, “Locke,” in The Cambridge History of Political Thought, 1450–1700, 616–52.

80 Lieberman, David, The Province of Legislation Determined: Legal Theory in Eighteenth Century Britain (Cambridge, 2003), 3355 .

81 Northern Star, 6 January 1838.

82 Cobbett, Legacy, 62–63, 72–73; Northern Star, 17 November 1838 and 27 July 1839.

83 London Dispatch, 18 August 1839; Northern Star, 14 September 1839; Charter, 15 September 1839; Champion, 15 September 1839; Northern Liberator, 21 September 1839; Chartist Circular, 29 September 1839.

84 Chase, Chartism, 57–86.

85 Parssinen, T. M., “Association, Convention and anti-Parliament in British Radical Politics, 1771–1848,” English Historical Review 88, no. 348 (July 1973): 504–33.

86 Northern Star, 26 October 1839.

87 Trevelyan, G. M., England under the Stuarts (repr., London, 2013), 318 .

88 Parssinen, “Convention,” 508. For the formation of the state constitutions, see Handlin, Oscar and Handlin, Mary, The Popular Sources of Political Authority (Cambridge, MA, 1966); Peters, Ronald, The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact (Boston, 1978). For both state and federal constitutions, see Tuck, Richard, The Sleeping Sovereign: The Invention of Modern Democracy (Cambridge, 2016), 181248 ; and Caplan, Russell, Constitutional Brinkmanship: Amending the Constitution by National Convention (Oxford, 1988), 140 .

89 Chase, Chartism, 207, 289.

90 For example, London Dispatch, 18 August 1839; Northern Liberator, 21 September 1839; Champion, 15 September 1839.

91 Unfavorable comparisons between the Convention and the French Revolution were made in unsympathetic quarters of the press, for example, Brighton Patriot, 9 July 1839, Age, 3 February 1839, and Derby Mercury, 29 May 1839.

92 Hovell, Chartist Movement, 119; Chase, Chartism, 58.

93 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789), http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp.

94 Taylor, Miles, “Republics versus Empires: Charles Dilke's Republicanism Reconsidered,” in Republicanism in Victorian Society, ed. Nash, David and Taylor, Antony (Stroud, 2000), 2534 , at 25; Wood, Gordon, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York, 1993), 95108 ; idem, Monarchism and Republicanism in the Early Republic,” in The Idea of America (New York, 2011), 231–50; Nelson, Eric, “Prerogative, Popular Sovereignty, and the American Founding,” in Popular Sovereignty in Historical Perspective, ed. Bourke, Richard and Skinner, Quentin (Cambridge, 2016), 187211 ; Nelson, Eric, The Royalist Revolution: Monarchy and the American Founding (Cambridge, MA, 2014).

95 Chartists continued to cite this point, for example, Northern Star, 17 June 1848 and 8 July 1848; 3 February 1849 and 24 February 1849.

96 London Dispatch, 18 August 1839; Northern Star, 14 September 1839; Charter, 15 September 1839; Champion, 15 September 1839; Northern Liberator, 21 September 1839; Chartist Circular, 29 September 1839.

97 Charter, 1 September 1839; London Dispatch, 1 September 1839. The Declaration was written by Julius Schroeder, about whom little is known other than he was a German émigré lawyer and an associate of Henry Hetherington. He was not a Convention delegate. Chase, Chartism, 373 n. 38.

98 Northern Star, 14 September 1839.

99 Northern Star, 24 July, 1841; Cleave's London Satirist and Gazette of Variety, 7 August 1841.

100 Hansard Parliamentary Debates, vol. 62, cc. 1373–81, 2 May 1842, Hansard Online, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1842/may/02/the-peoples-charter-petition.

101 Northern Star, 14 September 1839.

102 Ibid.

103 Chartist Circular, 30 May 1840.

104 Ibid.

105 Northern Star, 1 June 1839.

106 Lovett, William, The Trial of William Lovett, Journeyman Cabinet-Maker, for Seditious Libel (London, 1839), 10 .

107 Southern Star, 15 March 1840.

108 Chartist Circular, 30 May 1840.

109 Wood, “Origins of American Constitutionalism,” 176.

110 For opposing views, see Allan, T. R. S., The Sovereignty of Law: Freedom, Constitutionalism, and Common Law (Oxford, 2013); Goldsworthy, Jeffrey, The Sovereignty of Parliament: History and Philosophy (Oxford, 2001).

111 Stoner, James R., “Natural Law, Common Law, and the Constitution,” in Common Law Theory, ed. Edlin, Douglas (Cambridge, 2007), 171–84, at 174.

112 Blackstone, Commentaries, 1:156–57. See also, Clark, Language of Liberty, 6, 86; Goldsworthy, The Sovereignty of Parliament, 181.

113 Lobban, Michael, “Custom, Nature, and Authority: The Roots of English Legal Positivism,” in The British and Their Laws in the Eighteenth Century, ed. David Lemmings (Woodbridge, 2005), 2758 .

114 David Lieberman, “The Mixed Constitution and the Common Law,” in The Cambridge History of Eighteenth Century Political Thought, 317–46, at 322–24.

115 Wood, Gordon, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (Chapel Hill, 1969), 344–54. See also Bailyn, Bernard, Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1971), 198229 ; Grey, Thomas, “Origins of the Unwritten Constitution: Fundamental Law in American Revolutionary Thought,” Stanford Law Review 30 (May 1978): 843–93.

116 Lutz, Donald, “Relative Influence of European Writers of late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought,” American Political Science Review 78, no. 1 (March 1984): 189–97, at 193.

117 On the development of this context, see Waldron, “Decline of Natural Right”; Bell, DuncanWhat is Liberalism?,” Political Theory 42, no. 6 (December 2014): 134 ; Claeys, Gregory, “The French Revolution Debate and British Political Thought,” History of Political Thought 11, no. 1 (January 1990): 5980 ; Stedman Jones, An End of Poverty?, 64–110.

118 On Chartism's radical heroes, see Roberts, Matthew, “Chartism, Commemoration, and the Cult of the Radical Hero, c. 1770–c. 1840,” Labour History Review 78, no. 1 (January 2013) 332 .

119 Northern Liberator, 16 December 1837; Northern Liberator, 21 October 1837.

120 Chartist Circular, 30 May 1840.

121 Northern Liberator, 14 September 1839.

122 Charter, 17 March 1839. Repeated on 31 March 1839.

123 Lovett, Justice Safer than Expediency, 80.

124 Northern Star, 3 August 1839; Yeo, “Some Practices,” 364.

125 For Australia, see Pickering, Paul, “‘The Oak of English Liberty’: Popular Constitutionalism in New South Wales, 1848–1856,” Journal of Australian Colonial History 3, no. 1 (April 2001): 127 ; idem, A Wider Field in a New Country: Chartism in Colonial Australia,” in Elections Full, Free and Fair, ed. Sawer, Marian (Sydney, 2001), 2844 ; Messner, Andrew, “Land, Leadership, Culture, and Emigration: Some Problems in Chartist Historiography,” Historical Journal 42, no. 4 (December 1999): 10931109 ; for Canada, see Vance, Michael, “Scottish Chartism in Canada West? An Examination of the ‘Clear Grit’ Reformers,” Scottish Tradition 22 (1997): 56104 ; McNairn, Jeffrey, The Capacity to Judge: Public Opinion and Deliberative Democracy in Upper Canada: 1791–1854 (Toronto, 2000); Ducharme, Michel, “Closing the Last Chapter to the Atlantic Revolution: The 1837–1838 Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada,” in Liberty! Égalité! Independencia!: Print Culture, Enlightenment, and Revolution in the Americas, 1776–1838, ed. Shields, David and Meléndez, Mariselle (Worcester, MA, 2007), 413–30; and for New Zealand, see Griffiths, John and Evans, Vic, “The Chartist Legacy in the British World: Evidence from New Zealand's Southern Settlements, 1840s–1870s,” History 99, no. 338 (December 2004): 797818 .

126 Prothero, Iorwerth, Radical Artisans in England and France, 1830–1870 (Cambridge, 2006), 2245 ; idem, Chartism and French Radicalism in the 1830s and 1840s: A Comparison,” Labour History Review 78, no. 1 (January 2013): 3349 ; Agnes, Benoît, “A Chartist Singularity? Mobilizing to Promote Democratic Petitions in Britain and France, 1838–1848,” Labour History Review 78, no. 1 (January 2013): 5166 .

127 Weisser, Henry, British Working-Class Movements and Europe, 1815–1848 (Manchester, 1975), 66200 ; Prothero, Iorweth, “Chartists and the Political Refugees,” in Exiles from European Revolutions: Refugees in Mid-Victorian England, ed. Freitag, Sabine (Oxford, 2003), 209–33; Finn, Margot, After Chartism: Class and Nation in English Radical Politics 1848–1874 (Cambridge, 1993).

128 Weisser, British Working-Class Movements and Europe, 7–65.

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