Mission and Scope
The mission of the Journal of Clinical and Translational Science (JCTS) is to provide a forum for disseminating advances in clinical and translational science. JCTS is a fully Open Access journal publishing high-quality articles on research that spans the translational continuum as well as education research that informs the development of the translational workforce. Topics of interest include investigations into how to best develop processes and people that translate discoveries into improved health.
JCTS is the official journal of the Association for Clinical and Translational Science (ACTS). ACTS has partnered with the Clinical Research Forum (CRF) to support the growth and development of JCTS. The Journal's founding Editor is Arthur M. Feldman, MD, PhD.
During submission, authors must clearly indicate which of the below subject categories best fits their manuscript. All manuscripts, no matter what the article type, should be submitted under a subject category. If authors are uncertain under which category to submit their paper, they should contact the editorial office at email@example.com.
The Journal publishes manuscripts across 6 broad topics areas: Basic and Preclinical Research; Clinical Research; Education; Research Methods and Technology; Implementation, Policy and Community Engagement; and Translational Research Design and Analysis. The following list provides some examples of topic areas but should not be considered as comprehensive:
Basic and Preclinical Research:
This includes studies focused on understanding of mechanisms of human disease through studies in cells, animal models, and human tissues; allergy, immunology, autoimmunity, and vaccine development; benign and malignant hematology; cardiovascular disease and prevention; cell signaling; endocrinology and metabolism; gene therapy and vector design; regenerative biology; human genetics, genomics, and proteomics; infectious disease; neurologic disease; oncologic disease; pharmacology and pharmacogenomics; and protein quality control.
Clinical Research: This includes studies that are first in human proof of concept studies; phase I-IV clinical trials; relevant phase IV clinical studies; comparative effectiveness research; pragmatic clinical trials; post-marketing surveillance; studies that identify or support biomarkers that can be used at any stage of drug development; pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and quantitative pharmacology studies that relate to translational medicine.
Education: This includes research that evaluates and assesses new and innovative methodologies for educating translational scientists, medical students, and physician scientists; programs focused on training residents and fellows to be community-based investigators; efforts to obtain community input in setting research priorities and contributing to research design, conduct, interpretation, and implementation; programs focused on increasing the pipeline of physician scientists, opportunities that improve the ability of graduate students to enter the translational sciences, and STEM programs to increase the pool size and diversity of the translational science workforce. In addition, we encourage manuscripts that detail successful and innovative mentoring programs both within and outside of CTSAs. Manuscripts presenting quantitative data will receive priority over those that are purely descriptive.
Research Methods and Technology: We encourage manuscripts that detail new technology and innovative methodology that has the potential to change the way translational scientists approach their studies.
Implementation, Policy and Community Engagement: The ability to translate discoveries into improvements in the health of the population is dependent on policies that are generated by academic institutions; governmental agencies; biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies; Federal, State and private regulatory agencies; and investors, foundations and industry. Manuscripts detailing health policy research that covers health disparities and inequalities, health care quality and safety, access to care, cost effectiveness of new drugs and devices, implementation science, and regulatory science are therefore encouraged.
Translational Research Design and Analysis: Process manuscripts describe innovative methods to design clinical trials and to accrue, collate, and analyze data. Subjects relevant to translational science include methodologies for novel clinical trial design (n of 1 studies, pragmatic studies, adaptive design trials), issues related to patient confidentiality and use of electronic health records, bioethical concerns relevant to both large scale and individual family genotyping, using next generation sequencing, best practices in informing subjects regarding genetic sequencing, data storage, data security, data analytics, and methodologies relevant to personalized and precision medicine. Submissions are also encouraged for studies that utilize big data to address questions relevant to translational scientists and that demonstrate how personalized medicine and/or precision medicine can improve health.
General Policies and Publishing Ethics
Originality: Manuscripts should represent original research or ideas. The authors should note in their cover letter that the manuscript has not been published previously, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The editors, editorial board and referees will make every attempt to ensure that the published results are valid; however the final responsibility rests with the authors and not with JCTS, its editors, or Cambridge University Press.
Publication Ethics: The Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the Editors adhere to the Codes of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines published by COPE. For further information on Cambridge's Ethical Guidelines, please visit these pages: Publication Ethics and Ethical Standards.
Conflicts of Interest: Authors must disclose in the cover letter and on the title page of the manuscript all financial interests and non-financial interests with industry or financial agencies within 3 years of submitting a manuscript for consideration that might be perceived by a scientific reader or a member of the general public to be a potential conflict of interest. Potential sources of conflict include corporate appointments, consultant fees, research funding, stock ownership or other equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements. If no conflict of interest exists with industry or other entities, this should be stated explicitly in the cover letter and on the title page. Potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed for all types of manuscripts, including Original Research, Expedited Reports, Brief Reports, Letters, Special Communications, Review Articles, Comments, and Editorials.
Financial Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest: Upon submission of a revised manuscript, authors will be expected to complete and sign a License to Publish Form on which all associations with industry or financial institutions must be detailed.
Informed Consent: Research projects involving human subjects must be reviewed and approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or an equivalent ethics committee. The authors must indicate in the manuscript whether the appropriate IRB or ethics committee reviewed the study prior to enrollment of patients. The authors should also note whether the study received a waiver from the IRB and describe the reason for that waiver in the text. In studies in which consent has been obtained as part of a general consent form, the authors should denote whether an "opt in" or "opt out" consent construct was used for the study. The authors should describe the procedure used for obtaining consent if relevant to understanding how the study subjects were enrolled. Any study for which either the Editors or the reviewers believe that appropriate informed consent was not obtained prior to patient enrollment will be returned to the authors. If radiation is used in a procedure, the radiation exposure must be defined in the Materials and Methods. Patients have a right to privacy; therefore, images, photographs, and pedigrees must be free of all identifying information. If identifiers are required for scientific clarity, authors must include a statement indicating informed consent was obtained from each patient that specifically approves the use of the identifier.
Animal Rights: Experiments using animals must conform with guidelines provided by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or equivalent animal protection committee of the institution at which the work was undertaken. All experiments must be performed in accord with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and under the supervision of qualified veterinarians and animals should be used only when alternative methods of addressing the question have been shown to be insufficient. All surgical procedures must be performed under anesthesia to obviate any suffering and animal facilities must meet all standards set forth by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal care (AAALAC).
All clinical trials must be registered in the public trials registry www.clinicaltrials.gov. The authors should carefully review the Federal requirements governing public registration of clinical trials. Alternative registries or foreign registries may suffice if they are publicly accessible, searchable, free to sponsors, provide trial identifiers, and include information on the study design, investigators, inclusion and exclusion criteria, study groups, eligibility criteria, and primary and secondary endpoints. Clinical trials should be reported according to CONSORT guidelines; clinical observational studies should be reported according to STROBE guidelines.
All Cambridge journals adhere to a set of Ethical Standards, as laid out here.
Where research involves human and/or animal experimentation, the following statements should be included (as applicable): "The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008." and "The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional guides on the care and use of laboratory animals."
We take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism, or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. Text taken directly or closely paraphrased from earlier published work that has not been acknowledged or referenced will be considered plagiarism. Submitted manuscripts in which such text is identified will be withdrawn from the editorial process. If a concern is raised about possible plagiarism in an article submitted to or published in the journal, this will be investigated fully and dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines. If needed the manuscript can be processed by iThenticate.
Accepted manuscripts are published online as is (before copy-editing or typesetting) within approximately a week of final acceptance, provided we have received all final files and a completed license to publish form. At this point, the article will have a DOI and be considered published and citable. You will subsequently receive a proof of your typeset, edited article, which will eventually replace the accepted manuscript online and be considered the final version of record.
Copyright Information and Open Access Charges
JCTS is a Gold Open Access journal. Articles published in the journal are freely and permanently accessible online under Creative Commons licensing that allow anyone to access and redistribute the content and, depending upon the license, re-use and adapt the content with attribution.
Authors will be asked to indicate the type of Creative Commons license under which the Contribution should be published (see below).
- CC BY 4.0 (Attribution)
- CC-BY-NC-SA (Attribution - Non-Commercial - Share Alike)
- CC-BY-NC-ND (Attribution - Non-Commercial - No Derivatives)
For information on what each license allows, please visit the Creative Commons website. Please note that if you fail to choose a license, the Contribution will be published under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Authors must complete and return a license to publish upon submission of a revised manuscript. Please be mindful of the requirements of your funding body/ies (if applicable) when selecting a license.
Article Processing Charges
Gold OA publication is supported by an article processing charge (APC), typically paid by the author’s funding body or institution. An APC will apply to all accepted papers, with a waiver scheme available for Gold OA journals policy page where you can download our full list of APC charges.. The journal’s APC can be found on our
- Amount £1025/ $1,250 for ACTS members
- Amount £1,430 / $1,750 for non-ACTS members
Upon acceptance for publication the corresponding author will be contacted on behalf of Cambridge University Press by Rightslink, who will administer the collection of the charge. At that stage the corresponding author can pay by credit card or arrange for an invoice to be issued to his or her funding body or institution. For more detail about the payment process see the Production FAQ.
Author(s) may request a discretionary waiver if they are not able to cover the funds of the APC. Requests must be made prior to submission, before the article enters editorial consideration and will be decided upon by the Society and the Publisher, without the knowledge of the editorial board. The author(s) must provide documentary evidence for their request (i.e., a letter from the institution or funder), indicating that no APC funds are available. Waiver requests made after article submission will result in a denied request. To ensure availability of funding has no bearing on editorial decisions, the Editors of JCTS should never be involved in correspondence with authors on payment of publication charges. All APC waiver requests must be submitted directly to the publisher prior to submission.
A full waiver of the APC will be granted automatically where the corresponding author is based in a Research4Life Group A country, and a 50% waiver will be granted where the corresponding author is based in a Research4Life Group B country.
Read and Publish Authors
Information regarding Cambridge University Press Read & Publish deals can be found here. See if your institute already has an agreement with the Press to cover all or part of your APC.
Sharing your article with colleagues and the wider community is a vital part of research. When you publish in this Gold OA journal, you are free to post the final published PDF (the Version of Record) on your own website or elsewhere, in keeping with the Creative Commons license you choose.
Digital Preservation Policy
Cambridge University Press publications are deposited in the following digital archives to guarantee long-term digital preservation:
- CLOCKSS (journals)
- Portico (journals and books)
Submission of Manuscripts
If you are a new author, you will need to register, and conform to the guidelines set forth in the "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals," available here. Manuscripts should be written in English and authors are encouraged to utilize the services of editors with experience in English to improve their manuscripts prior to submission.
After an initial screening in the editorial office, each manuscript will be evaluated by the Editor-in-Chief and then assigned to a Handling Editor. The authors will be notified if the manuscript is not being sent out for review. A decision about manuscripts sent for review will be reached in 4-6 weeks and rapidly communicated to the authors. Manuscripts will be accepted for publication (with minor edits), accepted with major revisions, or declined. Authors of papers that have been "accepted with major revisions" will be provided with a list of items that must be addressed for the manuscript to be accepted for publication.
Authors are required to provide the names and contact information of at least four (4) suggested reviewers upon submission.
For revised submissions only, please upload two copies of the manuscript, one with track changes ON and the other with track changes OFF.
Author Inquiries: Authors may contact the Journal's editorial office (firstname.lastname@example.org) to inquire regarding the submission of manuscripts or to receive a status report on manuscripts that are presently under review. For information regarding articles that have been accepted for publication, please contact the Journal's editorial office.
The Journal of Clinical and Translational Science conducts a single-blind peer review process, and authors are asked to provide a complete list of manuscript authors and affiliations, as well as the name and contact information of the corresponding author, on the Title Page of their submitted manuscript.
Categories of Manuscripts
Research Articles* report significant findings from original research across the broad areas of the clinical and translational sciences. Research Articles should include a structured Abstract of no more than 250 words followed by an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, References, Figures and Tables. The paper should be no more than 5000 words in length, include no more than 50 references, and may have up to 7 figures or tables. Additional materials may be submitted as Supplementary Material; however, this should be limited to information that is not critical to a reader's understanding of the results that are presented in the main text.
Expedited Reports* describe research results that have the potential to significantly impact the translational sciences and should include all of the information necessary for the reader to fully interpret the results. For example, an Expedited Report might describe a paradigm shifting observation—although the mechanism responsible for that observation might not yet be known. Expedited reports should be less than 1500 words in length, should contain no more than 2 figures or tables, and should have no more than 20 references. An abstract of no more than 100 words should accompany each Expedited Report. Reports not viewed appropriate for expedited review will be considered for a Brief Report as outlined below.
Brief Reports* describe research results that are succinct and that may or may not represent a shift in paradigm. Despite their short length, Brief Reports should include the appropriate experimental support of the conclusion and, where appropriate, the mechanism or mechanisms that are responsible for the observed results. Brief reports should be 2000 words or less, should contain no more than 3 figures or tables, and should contain no more than 20 references. Brief Reports should begin with an unstructured abstract of no more than 100 words.
Letters provide an opportunity for authors to describe an important piece of work that is a stand-alone observation that shifts the paradigm or will open a larger and longer series of experiments that might be undertaken by multiple laboratories or groups. For example, a Letter may report the results of a proof of concept study in a large animal subsequent to fuller reports in small animals or the association of a biomarker with a new phenotype. Letters must be no longer than 750 words, include no more than 1 figure or table, and should have no more than 10 references. A Handling Editor or the Editor-in-Chief will review letters and in most cases decisions regarding acceptability for publication will be made within 14 days. No abstract should accompany a letter.
Special Communications* describe and discuss programs that are designed to enhance Clinical and Translational Science at a single site or in a larger consortium. For example, a description of a novel mentoring program, a discussion of alternative methodologies for enhancing the number of K scholars who attain independent funding, or an initiative designed to enhance enrollment in investigational cohorts would be applicable for submission as a Special Communication. Wherever possible, quantitative analysis rather than qualitative analysis of the innovation or program should be provided. They should be less than 3500 words, include no more than 4 figures or tables, and should include no more than 30 references. Special Communications should be accompanied by an abstract of no more than 200 words.
Comments are brief discussions of articles that are published in JCTS. They must be no longer than 500 words and may include a single figure or table and 5 references. Comments must be submitted within 3 weeks of the publication of the article about which the comments are directed. No original data may be included. The cited article should be included as a reference. The Editors will in most cases request a reply from the authors of the cited article. Only a small number of Comments will be selected for publication. No abstract is required for Comments.
Review Articles* that are timely, of high quality and that review a topic in the clinical and translational sciences are encouraged. Although in most cases the Editors will invite specific experts to submit review articles, authors wishing to submit a review article may contact the Editors by email to discuss the topic and the content of the manuscript. Review Articles should be no longer than 6000 words (excluding tables, figure legends, and references), include no more than 8 figures and/or tables, and no more than 125 references. An abstract of no more than 200 words should accompany each submission.
Editorials comment on specific articles published by JCTS or general topics in translational science of timely interest. The Editors will invite all editorials. They should be no longer than 1500 words, may include no more than 2 figures or tables, and should include no more than 20 references. Editorials do not require an abstract but should include a summary of the discussion in the first two sentences of the text.
Perspectives are brief manuscripts representing opinions or pro-con statements regarding topics relevant for clinical and translational science. Although in some cases the Editors will invite authors to submit perspectives, authors wishing to submit a perspective may contact the Editors by email to discuss the topic and the content of the manuscript. Perspectives should be no longer than 1000 words, do not require figures or tables but may include no more than a total of 2 figures or tables, and should include no more than 20 references. Perspectives do not require an abstract.
Conference Proceedings represent summaries of conferences or meetings focused on Clinical and Translational Science that include a broad constituency. This could for example include a summary of presentations of a national or regional meeting where the content is deemed of general interest. Authors are urged to discuss a Conference Proceeding with the Editor-in-Chief prior to the submission, although manuscripts will be reviewed as described if they are submitted without a previous discussion. They should be less than 2500 words, include no more than 2 figures or tables, and should include no more than 20 references. The authors of a Conference Proceeding have an option to include an abstract of no more than 150 words.
Translational Science Case Studies* describe and discuss the value of a clinical or translational science intervention, including the health problem addressed, the intervention’s scope, and its impact on clinical care, public health, or policy. They should include a review and graphical depiction of the milestones in the development of the intervention, including but not limited to early discoveries, approvals, and evidence of distribution (landmark publications, grants, patents, or treatment guidelines) as well as a description of the factors essential to successful translation, including but not limited to key stakeholders, collaborations and team science, serendipitous events, discoveries, policies, technologies, infrastructure and other academic-, industry-, and community-based supports. A description of barriers or impediments to successful translation, including how they were overcome or mitigated, if applicable, is encouraged as well as a description of the status of dissemination and implementation of the intervention, including the context, extent of use, and local, national or international impacts. Finally, a description of current directions of the case, including but not limited to new directions, remaining knowledge gaps, and any lessons learned or important postscripts for researchers is encouraged. Manuscripts should be 4000 words or less, include no more than 4 figures or tables, and should include no more than 30 references. Translational Science Case Studies should be accompanied by an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words.
Format of Manuscripts:
Cover Letter: All manuscripts should include a cover letter from the corresponding author stating that: 1) all authors have reviewed the manuscript and approved its submission; 2) the manuscript has not been published previously either in whole or in part with the exception of an abstract or abstracts; and 3) the manuscript is not under consideration by any other journal or other form of information dissemination. The authors should disclose any conflicts of interest and should provide the address (email) for correspondence regarding the manuscript.
General requirements: Manuscripts must be in English and should conform to the American Medical Association Manual of Style (9th edition). Stedman's Medical Dictionary (27th edition), and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition) should be used as references for spelling and usage. All pharmacological agents should be referred to by their generic or chemical names, although the commercial name may be provided in parenthesis after its first use in the text. Trade names may not be used in any form in the title of the manuscript. When a generic name is not yet available, the common letter–number combination used to identify the drug should be used. A figure detailing the chemical structure of the compound should be included if it has not been published previously. Trade names should not be used for devices, with the exception of the first description of the device wherein the trade name should appear in parenthesis and should be capitalized.
Manuscripts must be double-spaced, margins should be no less than 0.8 inches throughout. The preferred fonts are 12 pt Arial, Cambria, or Helvetica. References should be numbered in order of appearance in the text.
When submitting the manuscript, include the manuscript, tables, and figures all merged into a single Word file. In the event of acceptance, this file will be posted as an Accepted Manuscript (AM) to Cambridge Core prior to FirstView publication. Please make sure the manuscript is formatted exactly as it should appear in the AM version, with no information included that you would not want posted (we will remove highlighting and accept TrackChanges prior to posting the AM, but that is all). The Accepted Manuscript will eventually be replaced with the final copy-edited and typeset Version of Record.
Keywords: Authors are required to include 5 keywords for their paper at the time of submission.
Title Page: This should include the complete title of the manuscript (not to exceed 170 characters); the names and affiliations of all authors; the name and address of the corresponding author, including telephone number and email address. The affiliations of the authors should be noted by superscript numerals. Any conflicts of interest should appear on the title page or it should be noted that there are no conflicts.
Abstract: The abstract should be placed on a separate page and should conform to the word limits listed above for the specific article type. Abstracts for Research Articles should be structured to include: 1) an Introduction that provides enough background information for the reader to understand the rationale for the research; 2) a brief discussion of the Methods used to undertake the work; 3) a succinct description of the principal Results; and 4) the Conclusions that can be drawn from the results. The Abstract will often appear independently of the complete manuscript and should therefore provide a succinct presentation of the most important aspects of the study. It should also serve to encourage the reader to review the complete text to fully understand the work.
Introduction: This section should provide the requisite background information to enable a reader to understand the rationale for the work and to appreciate the significance of the findings. For example, the introduction should allow the general reader to understand how the findings advance the field.
Materials and Methods: This section should provide sufficient information and detail to allow other investigators to replicate the experiments in their fullest detail. When experimental conditions were used that had been detailed in previous publications by the same authors, these methods can be referenced without a detailed description. If methods were used that were described by others, the authors should take care to ensure that any changes in the protocols are noted. Routine laboratory measures or those described in purchased kits may simply be referenced and the authors should note that manufacturer's instructions were followed as appropriate. For clinical studies, this section should include a careful description of how the study population was identified/recruited, as well as the methodology used for obtaining informed consent. A complete discussion of the software and methods used for statistical analysis should be included. If animals were used in the studies being reported, the authors should note their adherence to the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals or their equivalent, and the approval of the individual Institutional Animal Use and Care Committee.
Results: This section should succinctly report the observation of the studies conducted. In general, studies performed in animals should, to the extent possible, include data on animals of both sexes, include randomized assignment, and incorporate blinding of the personnel evaluating the animals' responses to interventions.
Randomized Clinical Trials: The methods and results section for randomized controlled trials should conform to the recommendations of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Group. CONSORT provides a standard way for reporting trial design, analysis, and interpretation and includes a 25-item checklist of items that should be included, as well as a flow diagram that describes patient allocations and helps both in evaluation and interpretation of trial results. JCTS urges investigators to use both the checklist and the flow diagram in preparing manuscripts for submission—both can be obtained from www.consort-statement.org. The reporting of clinical observational studies should follow the STROBE guidelines and include the accompanying checklist in the submission.
Discussion: The Discussion section should place the results in the context of what is already known and should describe the specific conclusions that can be drawn from the results. It should include a section that explicitly discusses any potential limitations of the experimental design. The Discussion section should also detail how the results may impact the field in the future. The Discussion should not be a place to review in detail everything that is known already about the specific field nor should it repeat in detail the findings already described in Results.
Acknowledgments: The authors should thank individuals who provided editorial help, critical comments, or materials used in the experiments. The acknowledgment should clearly state the contribution of each individual who is mentioned. It should also include complete funding information, including identifiers. Each grant should be followed by a parenthesis identifying the individual author funded by that grant by their initials.
Disclosures: Information related to detailed conflicts of interest should be included in this section. For example, authors should acknowledge the specific relationship that results in a conflict (e.g., equity, consulting agreement, travel expenses, etc.) and the sponsoring organization.
Figure Legends: Figures should be numbered as they appear in the text of the manuscript. Figure legends should be double-spaced and begin with a brief title. Nomenclature and symbols used in the figures should match those used in the text. All abbreviations and symbols should be defined in the figure legend.
References: References formatting should follow the American Medical Association Manual of Style (9th edition). References should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text and should be double-spaced. Abstracts should not be included as references. Unpublished data should not be included in the reference section but may be noted in the text in parenthesis (unpublished data); however, authors are strongly discouraged from discussing unpublished data unless absolutely necessary to the interpretation of their results. Manuscripts that are in press or personal communications may be included as references in the text and should be given a number and placed in the reference section in order of appearance with the other references. Personal communications, however, should be used sparingly if at all and should not be used alone to support an important conclusion. References should include names, the full titles and inclusive pagination (when applicable). List all authors when there are six or fewer; for seven or more references, list only the first three and add "et al." Examples of proper formatting follow:
Gonzales S, O’Keefe L, Gutzman K, et al. Personas for the translational workforce. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science 2020; 4: 286–293. doi: 10.1017/cts.2020.2
Wuchty S, Jones B, Uzzi B. The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge. Science 2007; 316: 1036–1039.
Frechtling J, Raue K, Michie J, Miyaoka A, Spiegelman M.The CTSA National Evaluation Final Report. Rockville, MD: Westat, 2012.
Clinical & Translational Science Awards Program (CTSA), Center for Leading Innovation & Collaboration (CLIC). Common Metrics Secondary Common Metrics [Internet], 2018 [cited Feb 16, 2018]. (https://clic-ctsa.org/common_metrics)
Goldsmith M, Morgan H. Team building without time wasting. In: Goldsmith M, Lyons L, Freas A, eds. Coaching for Leadership: How the World's Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2000, pp. 103–109.
Tables: Each table should have a table legend that is brief and descriptive. All abbreviations and symbols should be defined in the table legend.
Figures and Micrographs: Figures should be constructed to ensure that labeling is clear and correct. Self-explanatory figures that do not rely heavily on the figure legend are preferred. For micrographs, scale bars should be used rather than providing magnification. The figure legend should clearly indicate the number of images that were obtained when a representative micrograph is provided. Photomicrographs of gels must indicate when two or more separate gels are shown by a line or space to indicate the borders of each original image. There should be no enhancement of images. Molecular weights of proteins should be indicated on all images of gels and it should be clearly indicated when horizontally aligned images are derived from the same gel. Units of measure should be given in SI units. If measurements were made in English units, give metric equivalents.
Figures must be listed directly in your submitted manuscript. Each figure can also be uploaded as a separate file. If you choose to upload separate figures in addition to including them in your manuscript file, you may use any of the following formats: TIFF, EPS, or PDF. Refer to the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide for detailed guidelines for preparing figures.
Supplementary Material: Supplemental material should be information that enhances the manuscript but too detailed or extensive to include in the main text. This may include more detailed methodology, or additional tables, graphs, movies, or audio files. Please contact the editorial office regarding submission of videos and audio files.