Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jb2ch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-20T14:28:46.325Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Cultivating Rice and Votes: The Institutional Origins of Agricultural Protectionism in Japan

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 March 2016

Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

We explore in this article an institutional foundation of agricultural protectionism in Japan, a country long recognized as resisting international pressures to open up its rice market. Using our qualitative analysis of postwar politics of agricultural protectionism and a simple formal model, we argue that farmers in Japan have stronger incentives to mobilize electoral support for the governing party in multimember district systems than in single-member district systems, because the marginal effects of mobilization on policy benefits are different under these electoral systems. Our empirical findings corroborate this claim and provide implications for the gradual changes in Japan's farm policies occurring after the electoral reform in 1994.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © East Asia Institute 

References

Achen, Christopher H., and Bartels, Larry M. 2004. “Blind Retrospection: Electoral Responses to Drought, Flu, and Shark Attacks.Manuscript.Google Scholar
Shimbun, Asahi. 2003. Asahi.com de Miru 2003 Sosennkyo no subete [Everything about the 2003 general election as seen at Asahi.com]. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun.Google Scholar
Shimbun, Asahi. 2005. Asahi.com de Miru 2005 Sosennkyo no subete [Everything about the 2005 general election as seen at Asahi.com]. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun.Google Scholar
Cole, Shawn A., Healy, Andrew, and Werker, Eric D. 2008. “Do Voters Appreciate Responsive Governments? Evidence from Indian Disaster Relief.Manuscript.Google Scholar
Cox, Gary W. 1987. The Efficient Secret: The Cabinet and the Development of Political Parties in Victorian England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cox, Gary W. 1991. “SNTV and d'Hondt Are ‘Equivalent.’Electoral Studies 10, 2: 118132.Google Scholar
Cox, Gary W., Rosenbluth, Frances M., and Thies, Michael F. 2000. “Electoral Rules, Career Ambitions, and Party Structure: Comparing Factions in Japan's Upper and Lower Houses.” American Journal of Political Science 44, 1: 115122.Google Scholar
Curtis, Gerald L., and Ishikawa, Masumi. 1983. Doken kokka nippon: Sekai no yutosei no tsuyomi to yowami [Contractor state Japan: The strength and weakness of the world's economic power]. Tokyo: Kobunsha.Google Scholar
Davis, Christina, and Oh, Jennifer. 2007. “Repeal of the Rice Laws in Japan: The Role of International Pressure to Overcome Vested Interests.” Comparative Politics 40, 1: 2140.Google Scholar
Doi, Takero, and Ashiya, Masahiro. 1997. “Kokko shishutsukin bunpai to seiken yoto no kankei” [The relationship between the distribution of subsidies from the central government to municipalities and the governing party]. Nihon Keizai Kenkyu 34: 180194.Google Scholar
Ehrlich, Sean D. 2007. “Access to Protection: Domestic Institutions and Trade Policy in Democracies.” International Organization 61, 3: 571605.Google Scholar
Fukui, Haruhisa, and Fukai, Shigeko N. 1996. “Pork Barrel Politics, Networks, and Local Economic Development in Contemporary Japan.” Asian Survey 36, 3: 268286.Google Scholar
George-Mulgan, Aurelia. 2000. The Politics of Agriculture in Japan. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
George-Mulgan, Aurelia. 2005. Japan's Interventionist State: The Role of the MAFF. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
George-Mulgan, Aurelia. 2006. Japan's Agricultural Policy Regime. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Godo, Yoshihisa. 1998. “Nokyo mondai no seiji keizaigaku” [Political economy of the Nokyo problem]. In Nogyo mondai no seiji keizai bunseki [Politico-economic analysis of agricultural policy issues], ed. Honma, Masayoshi and Okuno, Masahiro. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shinbunsha.Google Scholar
Grampp, William D. 1987. “How Britain Turned to Free Trade.” The Business History Review 61, 1: 86112.Google Scholar
Haley, John Owen. 2008. “Rivers and Rice: What Lawyers and Legal Historians Should Know About Medieval Japan.Manuscript.Google Scholar
Hayami, Yujiro. 1991. “Institutional Aspects of Agricultural Development.” In The Agricultural Development of Japan: A Century's Perspective, ed. Hayami, Yujiro and Yamada, Saburo. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
Hayami, Yujiro, and Godo, Yoshihisa. 2002. Nogyo keizairon [Agricultural economics], 2nd ed. Tokyo: Iwanami.Google Scholar
Hayami, Yujiro, and Kawagoe, Toshihiko. 1991. “Farm Mechanization, Scale Economies, and Structural Change.” In The Agricultural Development of Japan: A Century's Perspective, ed. Hayami, Yujiro and Yamada, Saburo. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
Healy, Andrew. 2008. “Do Voters Punish Politicians for Bad Luck? The Uneducated Ones Do.Manuscript.Google Scholar
Hirose, Michisada. 1981. Hojokin to seikento [Subsidies and the governing party]. Tokyo: Asahi Shimbunsha.Google Scholar
Honma, Masayoshi, George-Mulgan, Aurelia, and Godo, Yoshihisa. 2004. “Nihon nogyo no kokusaika to seiji nokyo no kaikaku” [Internationalization of Japanese agriculture and reform of politics and Nokyo]. Discussion Paper Series. Tokyo: Research Institute of Economy, Trade, and Industry.Google Scholar
Horiuchi, Yusaku. 2005. Institutions, Incentives, and Electoral Participation in Japan: Cross-Level and Cross-National Perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Horiuchi, Yusaku, and Saito, Jun. 2003. “Reapportionment and Redistribution: Consequences of Electoral Reform in Japan.” American Journal of Political Science 47, 4: 669682.Google Scholar
Ihori, Toshihiro, and Doi, Takero. 1998. Nihon seiji no keizai bunseki [Economic analysis of Japanese politics]. Tokyo: Bokutakusha.Google Scholar
Ishikawa, Masumi. 1999. Ochiteiku seiji [Corrupting politics]. Tokyo: Iwanami.Google Scholar
Jichisho [Ministry of Home Affairs, Department of Elections]. Various years. Sangiin giin tsuju senkyo kekka shirabe [The results of election of the House of Councillors]. Tokyo: Jichisho.Google Scholar
Karol, David. 2007. “Does Constituency Size Affect Elected Officials' Trade Policy Preferences?Journal of Politics 69, 2: 483494.Google Scholar
Leigh, Andrew. 2009. “Does the World Economy Swing National Elections?Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 71, 2: 163181.Google Scholar
Lewis-Beck, Michael S., and Stegmaier, Mary. 2000. “Economic Determinants of Electoral Outcomes.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 183219.Google Scholar
McCubbins, Mathew D., and Rosenbluth, Frances M. 1995. “Party Provision for Personal Politics: Dividing the Vote in Japan.” In Structure and Policy in Japan and the United States, ed. Cowhey, Peter F. and McCubbins, Mathew D. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
McDonald, Mary G. 1996. “Farmers as Workers in Japan's Regional Economic Restructuring.” Economic Geography 72, 1: 4972.Google Scholar
Milner, Helen V., and Peter Rosendorff, B. 1997. “Democratic Politics and International Trade Negotiations.” Journal of Conflict Resolutions 41, 1: 117146.Google Scholar
Mizusaki, Tokifumi. 1993. Sosenkyo deta besu: JED-M deta (28–40) [General election database: JED-M data for 28th through 40th general elections]. Tokyo: LDB.Google Scholar
Mizusaki, Tokifumi. 1996. Dai 41 kai (1996 nen) JED-M deta [Japan election data by Mizusaki for the 41st general election in 1996]. Tokyo: LDB.Google Scholar
Mizusaki, Tokifumi. 2000. Dai 42 kai (2000 nen) JED-M deta [Japan election data by Mizusaki for the 42nd general election in 2000]. Tokyo: LDB.Google Scholar
Nielson, Daniel L. 2003. “Supplying Trade Reform: Political Institutions and Liberalization in Middle-Income Presidential Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 47, 3: 470491.Google Scholar
Norin Suisansho [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries]. 2004. Nogyo soseisan-gaku (gaisan) [Synopsis of agricultural production]. Tokyo: Norin Suisansho.Google Scholar
Norin Suisansho [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries]. Various years. Sakumotsu tokei [Crop statistics]. Tokyo: Norin Tokei Kyokai.Google Scholar
Park, Jong Hee, and Jensen, Nathan M. 2007. “Domestic Political Institutions and Agricultural Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 51, 2: 314329.Google Scholar
Reed, Steven R., and Shimizu, Kay. 2007. “Measuring Competitiveness in Multi-Member Districts.” Paper presented at the conference “Electoral and Legislative Politics in Japan,” Stanford University, June 11–12.Google Scholar
Rodosho [Ministry of Labor]. 1975. Rodo kumiai kiso chosa [Basic survey on labor unions]. Tokyo: Rodosho.Google Scholar
Rogowski, Ronald. 1987. “Trade and the Variety of Democratic Institutions.” International Organization 41, 2: 203223.Google Scholar
Rosenstone, Steven J., and Hansen, John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Saeki, Naomi. 1997. Jusen to nokyo [Housing loan companies and the agricultural cooperatives]. Tokyo: Norin Tokei Kyokai.Google Scholar
Sasaki, Takeshi, Taniguchi, Masaki, Yoshida, Shinichi, and Yamamoto, Syuji. 1999. Daigishi to kane: Seijishikin zenkoku chosahokoku [Representatives and money: Report on the national survey of campaign finance]. Tokyo: Asahi Sensho.Google Scholar
Shogenji, Shinichi. 2006. Gendai nihon no nosei kaikaku [Policy reform in Japanese agrofood sectors]. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
Somusho Tokeikyoku [Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Statistics Bureau]. Various years. Kokusei chosa [National census]. Tokyo: Nihon Tokei Kyokai.Google Scholar
Stokes, Susan C. 2005. “Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics with Evidence from Argentina.” American Political Science Review 99, 3: 315325.Google Scholar
Tatebayashi, Masahiko. 2004. Giin kodo no seiji keizaigaku [Political economy of legislative behavior]. Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
Uchida, Takio. 2002. “Noka kozo no henka to nokyo no soshiki kiban eno eikyo” [Change in the structural features of farm households, and its impact on the organizational foundations of the agricultural cooperatives]. Norin kinyu [Agricultural finance] 55, 7: 2437.Google Scholar
Watanabe, Osamu. 1998. “Sengo-gata seiji no keisei to noson” [Formation of postwar politics and rural communities]. In Demokurashi no hokai to saisei: Gakusaiteki sekkin [Collapse and renewal of democracy: An interdisciplinary approach], ed. Ryoshin, Minami, Nakamura, Masanori, and Nishizawa, Tamotsu. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha.Google Scholar
Yamada, Saburo. 1991. “Quantitative Aspects of Agricultural Development.” In The Agricultural Development of Japan: A Century's Perspective, ed. Hayami, Yujiro and Yamada, Saburo. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar