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Instructions for contributors

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Contributors are asked to submit their article and abstract by email attachment in Word or Rich Text format (not pdf) to The length of an article should be not more than 8,000 words, inclusive of notes. The whole text, including notes, should be double-spaced with generous margins in the same font and type-size throughout. Notes should be numbered, in arabic, in one sequence throughout the article (though see below, p. 3, III, IV, for conventions on an initial unnumbered footnote) and formatted as endnotes not footnotes (although the published articles will have footnotes). Cross-references within the article should be avoided unless absolutely necessary, and where used must always refer to a section or footnote number rather than a page number (this is because the page numbering will change between initial online publication and eventual print publication). An abstract of the article content of no more than 100 words should be submitted on a separate page, but not as a separate document: this will be printed at the head of the article.

When an article has been formally accepted for publication by the editors and the final revisions have been completed to their satisfaction the author will be asked to submit the final version electronically via email. The copy-editor will be working from this final version. It is therefore essential that it should be accurate, that all corrections have been transferred to it and that it should be prepared according to series style.

Production process

It is likely that the copy-editor will write to you with detailed queries on the typescript, and it is important that these should be dealt with promptly and fully to avoid excessive correction at proof stage. You will see one set of typeset proofs, after which your article will be published online as a stand-alone article before it appears in a print number of the journal. This is in accord with CUP’s publishing model First View. This will constitute formal publication; the article will be accessible to subscribers, citable and eligible for REF or similar evaluations. Publishing online ahead of print in this way ensures that readers are able to benefit from work as soon as possible. One point to bear in mind is that once your article has gone online no further modification is possible so it is extremely important that the proofs are read very carefully.


1. Quotations: Single inverted commas in all instances, except that quotations within a quotation should be within double inverted commas. Where the quotation begins with a capital letter and forms a complete sentence the final inverted comma should follow the point; otherwise it precedes it. This includes quotations following a colon. The source of the quotation should always be provided, usually in a footnote. Quotations will be displayed if they exceed sixty words: they should be typed as a separate paragraph preceded and followed by a line space, and marked with a single pencil line in the margin. Quoted matter is normally punctuated according to modern conventions. Quoted material within a footnote should be followed by the source, thus '....': Knowles, Religious orders, ii. 39.

Quotations in languages other than English (unless the article itself is in French of German) should be translated in the text, with the original provided in the footnotes. This applies also to quotations in to Greek or Latin, unless the author has a very strong preference, but it does not apply to a single word or phrase/s in a non-English language.

2. Spellings and Conventions: British, not US, so e.g. -ise for -ize, honour, centre etc.

NB: nevertheless, none the less, insofar, set-back, setpiece, Basle, Strasbourg, Ailred, appendices, indices, regime, co-operate, judgement, elite, connection, medieval, role, focuses, no-one, on to

italic to be used for a priori, c. [for circa], sola scriptura, apologia pro vita sua, ancien régime, raison d'être, [sic], status quo, s.v., Bull Unigenitus, alias, v., Vita, Life.

NB: cf. (for 'compare'); i.e.; ibid.; idem; passim – all in roman type; above, below (not supra, infra); and others (not et al.); f./ff. for 'and following page(s)'; op. cit., loc. cit. and art. cit. should not be used. Please avoid e.g. and spell out instead. Note idem, Pagan Rome, 63–9; and that there is no comma in ibid. 43.

Please use English forms of non-English place-names if a recognised standard form exists, and avoid obsolete or archaic forms – Leghorn, Ratisbon, Mayence etc.

3. Dr, Mr, Fr, Revd, St or SS (for saint or saints): no points. Leave spaces between initials of author's name; these initials do attract points.

4. MS and MSS for manuscript(s); fo./fos (NB no point in plural) for folio(s); sig./sigs for signature(s); no./nos for numbers; pt(s) for part(s); app./apps for appendix(ces); ep. v /epp. cvii–cix; letter 6/letters 345-8.

5. Scriptural references in full at first reference and then abbreviated as Matt.; 2 Cor.; Heb. ii. 7, 8 (abbreviations according to the practice recommended by the Society of Biblical Literature).

6. Dates: 30 October 1978; 1960s (no apostrophe); 1806–7; 1917–18; 1942–3; AD 700; 36 BC/BCE/CE. Months abbreviated in footnotes as Jan./Feb./Mar./Apr. etc.

7. Numbers: Elision as 57–63; 66-7; 204–5, 117–18; 1,350–9; fo. 36v-r; fos 36v–39r; ch xvi-xvii. 30 per cent in text; 30% in footnotes. All numbers below 100 spelt out except where in an extended sequence. But do not elide numbers in dates 23–24 July.

8. Capitalisation: Please keep capitalisation to a minimum, within the following guidelines: a) the bishop of Salisbury visited Bishop Fisher; b) the Church teaches humility; the church was built in the eighteenth century: the church leaders arrived. Capitals for Protestant, Catholic (etc.), Puritan, Nonconformist and for words derived from proper names as Christian, Benedictine.

9. Any tabular material, graphs or maps should be provided in a separate file, not placed within the text. Its location should be indicated in the margin of text in the form 'table 1 near here'. All such material should be keyed into the text as, for example (see Fig. 2), and figure captions should be provided at the end of the document, following the endnotes.

Illustrations (black-and-white) can be included only if they are absolutely essential to the paper in that they are closely referred to through the text which would not cohere without them. Please see below for the instructions on preparation, as specified by Cambridge University Press. Colour illustrations are possible but at the author’s expense; otherwise an image provided in colour will appear in the print version of the Journal in black-and-white but on the website in colour.

10.The Editors discourage the use of superfluous quotations in the titles of articles, for example, ‘“O for the wings of a Dove”: tithe disputes in seventeenth-century Lancashire’. Displayed opening quotations at the head on an article similarly create problems of layout. Titles of articles should in any event be as succinct as possible.


I. A short title system should be employed: full reference at first citation and short title thereafter (not author-date, author only or op. cit. system).

II. In all cases – books, journal articles, theses and contributions to a collective work – both titles and subtitles (which must be provided) are lower-case except for the initial letter and proper names. Journal and series titles should be capitalised. Reference to foreign language titles should follow their standard conventions on capitalisation: German citations should follow German practice in capitalising nouns; French title capitalise until the first significant word, then lower case. A translation of titles in languages not using the Roman or Greek alphabets should be provided in square brackets following the original title.

Titles of, for example, early printed books should follow the same conventions as for modern titles. However where they are excessively long (more than two lines of text) they may be abbreviated at a sensible point, without ellipses.

III. Titles of periodicals and series must be given in full when first cited, together with the abbreviated form used subsequently, thus: Harvard Theological Review (hereinafter cited as HTR). Where more than three abbreviations are used in the footnotes, they should be listed separately as the first (unnumbered) footnote to the article. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History is abbreviated as 'this Journal'.

IV. Any acknowledgements or expressions of thanks should be included in a second unnumbered footnote.

V. PL and PG (italic type) for Migne, Patrologia Latina and Patrologia Graeca; thus: PL cxv. 109C.

Note the form of punctuation after abbreviations is CSEL xiv. 205; Chron., ii. 50; Works, ii. 40. For books published in Britain or in English before 1640, the call number in the [Revised] Short Title Catalogue should be added, after place and date of publication, in the format of abbreviation plus numeral only, e.g. (RSTC 4523). For books published in Britain or in English between 1640 and 1701, the call number in Wing should be added, as abbreviation plus letter and numeral, e.g. (Wing A.4523).

VI. All books should be cited by year and place of publication; it is not necessary to supply the name of the publisher. Where there is a standard English form for the place of publication use it, as Florence, Rome etc., otherwise use the current native spelling. Note that it is not necessary to specify how many volumes a book is in, and, particularly with secondary works, it is only necessary to provide the name of the series in which it occurs if there might otherwise be problems in identifying it. Where a book has gone through more than one edition, the one referred to should be specified.

VII. 'p.' or 'pp.' should not be used except where confusion might follow (as in example f. below), or when referring to preliminary pages of a work: pp. x–xii.

VIII. Endnotes should be numbered in Arabic, not Roman, numerals and follow the initial unnumbered footnote/s.

IX. The full run of a journal article should be given at first reference. Subsequently a specific page/s is appropriate.

X. It is extremely important that full details of editions and other publication matters are provided in initial citations. Any inadequate information results in publication delays. The following models should be used when constructing descriptions of various genres of title and source:

a) A. Briggs and P. Burke, A social history of the media, from Gutenberg to the internet, Cambridge 2005, 245–7.

b) E. Duffy, The stripping of the altars: traditional religion in England, c.1400–c.1580, 2nd edn, New Haven–London 2005

c) K. Ghosh, The Wycliffite heresy: authority and the interpretation of texts, Cambridge 2002, chs ii–iii

d) Joseph Cope, ‘The experience of survival during the 1641 Irish rebellion’, Historical Journal xlvi (2003), 295–316

e) G. Atkins, ‘Wilberforce and his milieux: the worlds of Anglican Evangelicalism, c. 1780–1830’,unpubl. PhD diss.Cambridge 2009

f) *S. Burt, ‘The Societies for the Reformation of Manners: between John Locke and the Devil in Augustan England’, in R. D. Lund (ed.), The margins of orthodoxy: heterodox writing and cultural response, 1660–1750, Cambridge 1995, 149–69

g) *Bernard Hamilton, ‘Perfection and pragmatism: Cathar attitudes to the household’, in John Doran, Charlotte Methuen and Alexandra Walsham (eds), Religion and the Household (Studies in Church History l, 2014), 86–96

h) *William of Ockham, A short discourse on the tyrannical government, ed. S. McGrade, trans. J. Kilcullen, Cambridge 1992

i) *Select cases in manorial courts, 1250–1550, ed. L. R. Poos and L. Bonfield (Selden Society cxiv, 1997), 36n.

*Note that an editor's name follows a primary source, but precedes a collection of essays etc.

j) Geneviève Dumas, Santé et société à Montpellier à la fin du moyen âge, Leiden 2015, 362

k) E. Sackur, Sibyllinische Texte und Forschungen, Halle 1898, 286–91

l) E. Cecchinato, Camicie rosse: i garibaldini dall’unità alla grande guerra, Rome‒Bari 2007

m) References to texts as Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica ii.3.4. (book/ch.[section]/para); Athanasius, De synodis 31 (ch.[section]). Line references should be given clearly as line(s). Always provide full, not abbreviated, titles of classical texts/patristic works with details of edition used at first reference, however obvious you think it should be.

n) Lambeth Palace Library, MS 425, fos 3r–v, 31r–33v; Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Rawlinson C 26, fos 1r–71v; BL, MS Lansdowne 63, fo. 3r–v; Emmanuel College, Cambridge, MS 261, fo. 34; Sheffield University, MS Hartlib 1/7; Cambridge University Library, MS Kk.iv.6, fo. 2.

o) Correspondence: Beilby Porteus to William Wilberforce, 6 Dec. 1780, Porteus papers, Lambeth Palace Library, MS 567, fo. 20.

NB. Where early printed books or manuscripts have conventional abbreviations in the title or elsewhere, such as a stroke to signal the omission of 'n' or 'm', these should be expanded. In such cases distinguish clearly between (e.g.) sig. Aiir, p. 4 and fo. 4, when locating quotations.


Duffy, Stripping of the altars, 6; Cope, ‘The experience of survival’, 297; Atkins, ‘Wilberforce’, 128–9; Burt, ‘Societies for the Reformation of Manners’, 160 nn. 45–7; Select cases in manorial courts; Dumas, Santé et société; Bodl. Lib., MS Rawlinson C 26, fo. 71; BL, MS Lansdowne 63, fos 3–5; Emman. Coll., MS 261, fo. 34; Eusebius, HE ii.3.4; CUL, MS Kk.iv.6, fo.2.

*Note that the editors'/s name is not included in the short title of a primary source.

Web Addresses and Online Databases

Always include ‘http’ and ‘www’ when these are part of the address, in the form <http://www[etc.]> (remove any colouring and underlining). Such addresses should be preceded by a comma not semi-colon. No access date is required with standard online publications and databases that rarely change (for example Parliamentary papers, OED, ONDB [though the article number should be cited] etc.); other, more ephemeral, items need access dates, in the form ‘accessed 9 Sept. 2011’, again preceded by a comma.

Some items printed online are regarded as ‘published’ and so they should appear as a standard book, with the title in italics:

David J. Seipp, Medieval English legal history: an index and paraphrase of printed year book reports, 1268–1535, at , cases 1365.053; 1373.051.

The parliament rolls of medieval England, 1275–1504, ed. Chris Given-Wilson, Woodbridge 2005; also available online at


E-journals should likewise be cited as standard journals; e- added to the Journal title will clarify, while other journals have e-numbers:.

e-Journal of Portuguese History i (2003).

Public Library of Science vi/3 (2011), e16735




To ensure that your figures are reproduced to the highest possible standards, Cambridge Journals recommends the following formats and resolutions for supplying electronic figures.

Please ensure that your figures are saved at final publication size and are in our recommended file formats. Following these guidelines will result in high quality images being reproduced in both the print and the online versions of the journal.

Line artwork

Format: tif or eps

Colour mode: black and white (also known as 1-bit)

Resolution: 1200 dpi

Combination artwork (line/tone)

Format: tif or eps

Colour mode: grayscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 800 dpi

Black and white halftone artwork

Format: tif

Colour mode: grayscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 300 dpi

Colour halftone artwork

Format: tif

Colour mode: CMYK colour

Resolution: 300 dpi

If you require any further guidance on creating suitable electronic figures, please visit Here you will find extensive guidelines on preparing electronic figures and also have access to an online preflighting tool ( where you can check if your figures are suitable for reproduction.

Last updated 18th October 2016