Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Borders That Divide: Education and Religion in Ghana and Togo Since Colonial Times

  • Denis Cogneau (a1) and Alexander Moradi (a2) (a3)

Abstract

The partition of German Togoland after World War I provides a natural experiment to test the impact of British and French colonization. Using data of recruits to the Ghanaian colonial army 1908–1955, we find that literacy and religious affiliation diverge at the border between the parts of Togoland under British and French control as early as in the 1920s. We partly attribute this to policies towards missionary schools. The divergence is only visible in the South where educational and evangelization efforts were strong. Contemporary survey data show that border effects that began in colonial times still persist today.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All

We are grateful to the General Headquarters of the Ghana Armed Forces, Personnel and Administration and Director and Staff, Military Records for granting us access to records of the Gold Coast Regiment. We thank Moses Awoonor-Williams, Namawu Alhassan, and Joana Acquah for excellent research assistance in Ghana. Invaluable support came from the Centre for the Study of African Economies at Oxford University, particularly Francis Teal. Data collection was funded by a British Academy Small Research Grant (SG-45045). We furthermore gratefully acknowledge the financial support of ESRC First Grant (RES-061-25-0456), and Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS).

Earlier versions of this article were presented at seminars in the Paris School of Economics and University of Sussex, at the African Economic History Workshop 2011 (Geneva), at the European Development Network 2011 meeting (Paris), and at the World Economic History Congress 2012 (Stellenbosch). We wish to thank their participants for useful comments, in particular Gareth Austin, Guilhem Cassan, Ewout Frankema, Rémi Jedwab, and Peter Lindert, as well as the editor of this JOURNAL, Jean-Laurent Rosenthal, and three anonymous referees. Discussions with Yannick Dupraz were invaluable, in particular on the comparison case of Cameroon. The usual disclaimer applies.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adotevi, Senyon L. “L'islam au Togo sous domination coloniale.” In Histoire des Togolais - Des origines aux années 1960; tome 4: Le refus de l'ordre colonial, edited by Gayibor, Nicoué, 65100. Lomé: Karthala, 2011.
Anarfi, John, Stephen, Kwankye, with Ofuso-Mensah, Ababio and Richmond, Tiemoko.Migration from and to Ghana: A Background Paper.” Working Paper C4, Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex, 2003.
Austin, Gareth. “Labour and Land in Ghana, 1879–1939: A Shifting Ratio and an Institutional Revolution.Australian Economic History Review (47), no. 1 (2007): 95120.
Austin, Gareth. “The ‘Reversal of Fortune’ Thesis and the Compression of History: Perspectives from African and Comparative Economic History.Journal of International Development (20), no. 8 (2008): 9961027.
Benavot, Aaron, and Phyllis, Riddle.The Expansion of Primary Education: 1870–1940.Sociology of Education (61), no. 3 (1988): 191210.
Bening, R. Bagulo. A History of Education in Northern Ghana, 1907–1976. Accra: Ghana Universities Press, 1990.
Berman, Edward H. “African Responses to Christian Mission Education.African Studies Review (17), no. 3 (1974): 527–40.
Bolt, Jutta, and Dirk, Bezemer.Understanding Long-Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?Journal of Development Studies (45), no. 1 (2009): 2454.
Brown, David S. “Democracy, Colonization, and Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa.Studies in Comparative International Development (35), no. 1 (2000): 2040.
Brownlie, Ian, with the assistance of Ian, R. Burns. African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopaedia. London: Hurst for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1979.
Bunche, Ralph J. “French Educational Policy in Togo and Dahomey.Journal of Negro Education (3), no. 1 (1934): 6997.
Cogneau, Denis. “Colonisation, School, and Development in Africa: An Empirical Analysis.DIAL Working Paper DT/2003/01, 2003.
Cogneau, Denis, Sandrine, Mesplé-Somps, and Gilles, Spielvogel.Development at the Border: Policies and National Integration in Côte d'Ivoire and Its Neighbors.World Bank Economic Review, forthcoming.
Cordell, Dennis D. and Joel, W. Gregory.Labour Reservoirs and Population: French Colonial Strategies in Koudougou, Upper Volta, 1914 to 1939.Journal of African History (23), no. 2 (1982): 205–24.
Debrunner, Hans W. A Church Between Colonial Powers: A Study of the Church in Togo. London: Lutterworth Press, 1965.
Debrunner, Hans W. A History of Christianity in Ghana. Accra: Waterville Publishing House, 1967.
Dell, Melissa. “The Persistent Effects of Peru's Mining Mita.Econometrica (78), no. 6 (2010): 1863–903.
Der, Benedict. “Church-State Relations in Northern Ghana, 1906–1940.” Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana (15), no. 1 (1974): 4161.
Dickson, Kwamina B. A Historical Geography of Ghana. London: Cambridge University Press, 1969.
Dupraz, Yannick. “British and French Colonial Education in Africa: A Spatial Discontinuity Analysis at the Border Between French-Speaking and English-Speaking Cameroon.Mimeo: Paris School of Economics, 2013.
Durlauf, Steven N. Johnson, Paul A. and Temple, Jonathan R. W.Growth Econometrics.” In Handbook of Economic Growth, edited by Aghion, Philippe and Durlauf, Steven N. 555677. Amsterdam; London: Elsevier, 2005.
Ekechi, F. K. “Colonialism and Christianity in West Africa: The Igbo Case, 1900–1915.” The Journal of African History (12), no. 1 (1971): 103–15.
Englebert, Pierre, Stacy, Tarango, and Matthew, Carter.Dismemberment and Suffocation: A Contribution to the Debate on African Boundaries.Comparative Political Studies (35), no. 10 (2002): 1093–118.
Foster, Philip J. Education and Social Change in Ghana. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Frankema, Ewout. “The Origins of Formal Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Was British Rule More Benign?European Review of Economic History (16), no. 4 (2012): 335–55.
Gallego, Francisco A. and Robert, Woodberry.Christian Missionaries and Education in Former African Colonies: How Competition Mattered.Journal of African Economies (19), no. 3 (2010): 294329.
Garnier, Maurice, and Mark, Schafer.Educational Model and Expansion of Enrollments in Sub-Saharan Africa.Sociology of Education (79), no. 2 (2006): 153–75.
Gbikpi-Benissan, François. Le système scolaire au Togo sous mandat français. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2011.
Ghana. Living Standard Measurement Survey 4. Available online at http://www.worldbank.org/lsms/, 1998.
Gifford, Prosser, and Timothy, C. Weiskel.African Education in a Colonial Context: French and British Styles.” In France and Britain in Africa: Imperial Rivalry and Colonial Rule, edited by Gifford, Prosser and Louis, William Roger, 663711. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971.
Goeh-Akue, N'buéké A. and Bammoy, Nabe.Une économie en transition: l'ère Bonnecarrère.” In Histoire des Togolais - Des origines aux années 1960; tome 3: Le Togo sous administration coloniale, edited by Gayibor, Nicoué, 405–35. Paris: Karthala, 2011.
Gold Coast. Blue Book. Accra: Government Printer, various years-a.
Gold Coast. Education Report. Accra: Government Printer, various years-b.
Gold Coast. Report of the Educationists' Committee 1919/20. Accra: Government Press, 1920.
Gouvernement Français. Rapport annuel du gouvernement francais sur l'administration sous mandat des territoires du Togo. Paris: Imprimerie générale Lahure, various years.
Grier, Robin M. “Colonial Legacies and Economic Growth.Public Choice 98, no. 3–4 (1999): 317–35.
Griffiths, Ieuan. “The Scramble for Africa: Inherited Political Boundaries.The Geographical Journal (152), no. 2 (1986): 204–16.
Hahn, Jinyong, Petra, Todd, and Wilbert Van der, Klauuw.Identification and Estimation of Treatment Effects with a Regression-Discontinuity Design.Econometrica (69), no. 1 (2001): 201–09.
Hargreaves, J. D. “The Making of the Boundaries: Focus on West Africa.” In Partitioned Africans: Ethnic Relations Across Africa's International Boundaries, 18841984, edited by Asiwaju, A. I. 1927. London: Hurst, 1985.
Herbst, Jeffrey Ira. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ; Chichester: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Hildebrandt, Jonathan. History of the Church in Africa: A Survey. [S.I.]: African Christian Press, 1996.
Killingray, David. “The Colonial Army in the Gold Coast: Official Policy and Local Response, 1890–1947.” Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of London, 1982.
Kolonialamt, . Jahresbericht über die Entwicklung der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika und der Südsee. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, 1902/03.
Komlos, John. “How to (and How Not to) Analyze Deficient Height Samples: An Introduction.Historical Methods (37), no. 4 (2004): 160–73.
Lange, Marie-France. L'école au Togo. Processus de scolarisation et institution de l'école en Afrique. Paris: Karthala, 1998.
Lawrance, Benjamin Nicholas. “Le Togo Britannique De 1920 À 1957.” In Histoire des Togolais - des origines aux années 1960, Tome 3 (Le Togo sous administration coloniale), edited by Gayibor, Nicoué, 283331. Paris: Karthala, 2011.
Lee, David S. and Thomas, Lemieux.Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics.Journal of Economic Literature (48), no. 2 (2010): 281355.
Lewis, M. Paul, and SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, TX: SIL International, 2009.
Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys. Available online at http://www.measuredhs.com.
Maddison, Angus. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001.
Meier zu Selhausen, Felix. “Missionaries and Female Empowerment in Colonial Uganda: New Evidence from Protestant Marriage Registers, 1880–1945.” Economic History of Developing Regions (forthcoming).
Michalopoulos, Stelios, and Elias, Papaioannou.Pre-Colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development.Econometrica (81), no. 1 (2013): 113–52.
Moradi, Alexander. “Towards an Objective Account of Nutrition and Health in Colonial Kenya: A Study of Stature in African Army Recruits and Civilians, 1880–1980.” The Journal of Economic History (69), no. 3 (2009): 720–55.
Mumford, William Bryant, and Granville, St. John Orde-Browne. Africans Learn to Be French: A Review of Educational Activities in the Seven Federated Colonies of French West Africa, Based Upon a Tour of French West Africa Undertaken in 1935. London: Evans Brothers, 1937.
Murdock, George Peter. Africa: Its Peoples and Their Culture History. New York; London: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. NGA Geonet Names Server, 2007 (cited August 2007). Available from http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/namefiles.htm.
Newell, Stephanie. Literary Culture in Colonial Ghana. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.
Nugent, Paul. Smugglers, Secessionists & Loyal Citizens on the Ghana-Togo Frontier: The Life of the Borderlands Since 1914. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002.
Nunn, Nathan. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trades.Quarterly Journal of Economics (123), no. 1 (2008): 139–76.
Nunn, Nathan. “Religious Conversion in Colonial Africa.American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings (100), no. 2 (2010): 147–52.
Nunn, Nathan, and Diego, Puga.Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa.The Review of Economics and Statistics (94), no. 1 (2012): 2036.
Oliver, Roland Anthony. The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London and New York: Longmans, 1952.
Olson, James Stuart. The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Rachal, John R. “Measuring English and American Historical Literacy: A Review of Methodological Approaches.International Journal of Lifelong Education (6), no. 3 (1987): 185–98.
Roberts, Andrew. Salisbury: Victorian Titan. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999.
Rouch, Jean. “Migrations Au Ghana.Journal de la Société des Africanistes 24 (1957): 33196.
Samwini, Nathan Iddrisu. “The Muslim Resurgence in Ghana Since 1950 and Its Effects Upon Muslims and Muslim-Christian Relations.D.Phil., Birmingham, 2003.
Schnee, Heinrich. Deutsches Koloniallexiko. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer, 1920.
Skinner, Kate. “From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana.Paedagogica Historica 46, no. 3 (2010): 307–23.
Smith, Noel T. The Presbyterian Church of Ghana, 1835–1960: A Younger Church in a Changing Society. Accra: Ghana Universities Press, 1966.
Steckel, Richard H. “Biological Measures of the Standard of Living.Journal of Economic Perspectives (22), no. 1 (2008): 129–52.
Thomas, Roger G. “Education in Northern Ghana, 1906–1940: A Study in Colonial Paradox.The International Journal of African Historical Studies (7), no. 3 (1974): 427–67.
Touval, Saadia. “Treaties, Borders, and the Partition of Africa.Journal of African History (7), no. 2 (1966): 279–93.
Wagner, Daniel A. “Literacy Assessment in the Third World: An Overview and Proposed Schema for Survey Use.Comparative Education Review 34, no. 1, Special Issue on Adult Literacy (1990): 112–38.
Wantchekon, Leonard, Natalija, Novta, and Marko, Klašnja.Education and Human Capital Externalities: Evidence from Colonial Benin.Working paper presented at the 2013 BREAD conference, 2013.
Ward, Barbara. “Some Notes on Migration from Togoland.African Affairs (49), no. 195 (1950): 129–35.
Welbourn, F. B. “Missionary Stimulus and African Responses.” In Colonialism in Africa: 1870–1960, edited by Gann, Lewis H. and Duignan, Peter, 310–45. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
Wesseling, H. L. Divide and Rule: The Partition of Africa, 1880–1914. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
White, Bob W. “Talk About School: Education and the Colonial Project in French and British Africa (1860–1960).Comparative Education (32), no. 1 (1996): 926.
Williams, T. David. “Sir Gordon Guggisberg and Educational Reform in the Gold Coast, 1919–1927.” Comparative Education Review (8), no. 3 (1964): 290306.
World Bank. 2011 World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Economic History
  • ISSN: 0022-0507
  • EISSN: 1471-6372
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-economic-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Cogneau and Moradi supplementary material
Appendix

 Word (747 KB)
747 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed