1 This dissertation was completed in 1993 in the Department of Economics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign under the direction of Jeremy Atack. The generous support of the National Science Foundation (SES 91–00517), the Business History Association (Rovensky Fellowship), and the University of Illinois (Dissertation and Project Grants) made possible its scope and depth.
2 See, for example, Prairie Farmer, 1868, p. 17, and 1869, p. 57.
3 Valley Farmer, 1861, p. 68. Also see Valley Farmer 1857, p. 358, and The Gensee Farmer, 1850, p. 228.
4 Falconer John, History of Agriculture in the Northern United States (Washington, 1925); Shannon Fred, The Farmer's Last Frontier (New York, 1945); Gates Paul, The Farmer's Age (New York, 1960); Bogue Allan, From Priarie to Corn Belt (Chicago, 1963); Danhof Clarence, Change in Agriculture (Cambridge, MA, 1969).
5 For a description of the sample see Bateman Fred and Foust James, “A Sample of Rural Households,” Agricultural History, 48(1), pp. 75–93.
6 See David Paul, “The Mechanization of Reaping,” in Rosovsky H. (ed.), Industrialization in Two Systems (New York, 1966), and Rogin Leo, The Introduction of Farm Machinery (Berkeley, 1931).
7 See, for example, McGuire's Robert A. discussion of populism in “Economic Causes of Late Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Unrest: New Evidence,” this Journal, 41 (12 1981), pp. 835–852.
8 Among the first to state this hypothesis was German agriculturalist Theodor Brinkmann. See Theodor Brinkmann's Economics of the Farm Business, translated by Benedict M. R. (Berkeley, 1935).
9 Many thanks to Sean Hartnett for sharing his computer mapping expertise.