Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-2c279 Total loading time: 0.269 Render date: 2023-01-30T02:28:14.039Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 June 2004

GERT LUBE
Affiliation:
Centre of Environmental and Geophysical Flows, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
HERBERT E. HUPPERT
Affiliation:
Institute of Theoretical Geophysics, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK
R. STEPHEN J. SPARKS
Affiliation:
Centre of Environmental and Geophysical Flows, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
MARK A. HALLWORTH
Affiliation:
Institute of Theoretical Geophysics, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK

Abstract

Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio $a\,{=}\,h_i/r_i$, where $h_i$ and $r_i$ are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately $ 59^\circ$, corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For $a\,{<}\,1.7$, the measured final runout radius, $r_\infty$, is related to the initial radius by $r_\infty \,{=}\, r_i(1\,{+}\,1.24a)$; while for $1.7\,{<}\,a$ the corresponding relationship is $r_\infty \,{=}\,r_i(1\,{+}\,1.6a^{1/2})$. The time, $t_\infty$, taken for the grains to reach $r_\infty$ is given by $t_\infty \,{=}\,3(h_i/g)^{1/2}\,{=}\,3(r_i/g)^{1/2}a^{1/2}$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

Type
Papers
Copyright
© 2004 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)
255
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *