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Breakdown mechanisms and heat transfer overshoot in hypersonic zero pressure gradient boundary layers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2013

Kenneth J. Franko
Affiliation:
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Sanjiva K. Lele
Affiliation:
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Abstract

A laminar Mach 6 flat plate boundary layer is perturbed using three different types of disturbances introduced through blowing and suction. The linear and nonlinear development and eventual breakdown to turbulence are investigated using direct numerical simulation. The three different transition mechanisms compared are first mode oblique breakdown, second mode oblique breakdown and second mode fundamental resonance. The focus of the present work is to compare the nonlinear development and breakdown to turbulence for the different transition mechanisms and explain the heat transfer overshoot observed in experiments. First mode oblique breakdown leads to the shortest transition length and a clear peak in wall heat transfer in the transitional region. For all three transition mechanisms, the development of streamwise streaks precedes the breakdown to fully turbulent flow. The modal linear and nonlinear development are analysed including the breakdown of the streaks. The effect of wall cooling is investigated for second mode fundamental resonance and no qualitative differences in the nonlinear processes are observed. Finally, the development towards fully turbulent flow including mean flow, turbulent spectra, and turbulent fluctuations is shown and the first mode oblique breakdown simulation shows the furthest development towards a fully turbulent flow.

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©2013 Cambridge University Press 

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