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Heat or mass transport from drops in shearing flows. Part 1. The open-streamline regime

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 July 2018

Deepak Krishnamurthy
Bioengineering Department, Stanford University, Shriram Center, Room 064, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305-4125, USA
Ganesh Subramanian*
Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 560064, India
Email address for correspondence:


We study the heat or mass transfer from a neutrally buoyant spherical drop embedded in an ambient Newtonian medium, undergoing a general shearing flow, in the strong convection limit. The latter limit corresponds to the drop Péclet number being large ($Pe\gg 1$). We consider two families of ambient linear flows: (i) planar linear flows with open streamlines (parametrized by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ with $0\leqslant \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\leqslant 1$, the extremal members being simple shear flow ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}=0$) and planar extension ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}=1$)) and (ii) three-dimensional extensional flows (parameterized by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}$, with $0\leqslant \unicode[STIX]{x1D716}\leqslant 1$, the extremal members being planar ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}=0$) and axisymmetric extension ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}=1$)). For the first family, an analysis of the exterior flow field in the inertialess limit (the drop Reynolds number, $Re$, being vanishingly small) shows that there exist two distinct streamline topologies separated by a critical drop-to-medium viscosity ratio ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}$) given by $\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{c}=2\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}/(1-\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC})$. For $\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}<\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{c}$ all streamlines are open, while the near-field streamlines are closed for $\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}>\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{c}$. For the second family, the exterior streamlines remain open regardless of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}$. The two streamline topologies lead to qualitatively different mechanisms of transport for large $Pe$. The transport in the open streamline regime is enhanced in the usual manner via the formation of a boundary layer. In sharp contrast, the closed-streamline regime displays diffusion-limited transport, so there is only a finite enhancement even as $Pe\rightarrow \infty$. For $Re=0$, the drop surface streamlines in a planar linear flow may be regarded as generalized Jeffery orbits with a flow and viscosity dependent aspect ratio Jeffery orbits denote the aspect-ratio-dependent inertialess trajectories of a rigid axisymmetric particle in a simple shear flow; see Jeffery (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 102 (715), 1922, pp. 161–179). A Jeffery-orbit-based non-orthogonal coordinate system thus serves as a natural candidate to tackle the transport problem from a drop, in a planar linear flow, in the limit $Pe\gg 1$. Use of this system allows one to derive a closed-form expression for the dimensionless rate of transport (the Nusselt number $Nu$) from a drop in the open-streamline regime ($\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}<\unicode[STIX]{x1D706}_{c}$). Symmetry arguments point to a Jeffery-orbit-based coordinate system for any linear flow, and a variant of this coordinate system is therefore used to derive the Nusselt number for the family of three-dimensional extensional flows. For both classes of flows considered, the boundary-layer-enhanced transport implies that the Nusselt number takes the form $Nu={\mathcal{F}}(P,\unicode[STIX]{x1D706})Pe^{1/2}$, with the parameter $P$ being $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ or $\unicode[STIX]{x1D716}$, and ${\mathcal{F}}(P,\unicode[STIX]{x1D706})$ given as a one and two-dimensional integral, respectively, which is readily evaluated numerically.

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