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On the thinnest steady threads obtained by gravitational stretching of capillary jets

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 July 2013

M. Rubio-Rubio
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Spain
A. Sevilla*
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Spain
J. M. Gordillo
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingeniería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
*
Email address for correspondence: alejandro.sevilla@uc3m.es

Abstract

Experiments and global linear stability analysis are used to obtain the critical flow rate below which the highly stretched capillary jet, generated when a Newtonian liquid issues from a vertically oriented tube, is no longer steady. The theoretical description, based on the one-dimensional mass and momentum equations retaining the exact expression for the interfacial curvature, accurately predicts the onset of jet self-excited oscillations experimentally observed for wide ranges of liquid viscosity and nozzle diameter. Our analysis, which extends the work by Sauter & Buggisch (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 533, 2005, pp. 237–257), reveals the essential stabilizing role played by the axial curvature of the jet, the latter effect being especially relevant for injectors with a large diameter. Our findings allow us to conclude that, surprisingly, the size of the steady threads produced at a given distance from the exit can be reduced by increasing the nozzle diameter.

Type
Papers
Copyright
©2013 Cambridge University Press 

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Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie

Globally stable jet of silicone oil with a viscosity of 200 cSt, injected through a needle of 6 mm outer diameter at a constant flow rate of 3.7 ml/min, showing steady behaviour. The movie was acquired at a rate of 300 images per second, and is displayed at 30 images per second.

Download Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie(Video)
Video 8.7 MB

Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie

Globally unstable jet of silicone oil with a viscosity of 200 cSt, injected through a needle of 6 mm outer diameter at a constant flow rate of 3.6 ml/min, showing the spontaneous growth of self-excited oscillations. The movie was acquired at a rate of 300 images per second, and is displayed at 30 images per second.

Download Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie(Video)
Video 9.6 MB

Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie

Globally stable jet of silicone oil with a viscosity of 100 cSt, injected through a needle of 2.5 mm outer diameter at a constant flow rate of 4.8 ml/min, showing damped oscillations after an external disturbance. The movie was acquired at a rate of 300 images per second, and is displayed at 30 images per second.

Download Rubio-Rubio et al. supplementary movie(Video)
Video 10.3 MB