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Slow flow of a Bingham fluid in a shallow channel of finite width

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2001

CHIANG C. MEI
Affiliation:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
MASATOSHI YUHI
Affiliation:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Permanent address: Department of Civil Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8667, Japan.

Abstract

We present a theory for the three-dimensional flow of a Bingham-plastic fluid in a shallow and wide channel. Focusing attention on slow flows appropriate for gentle slopes, low discharge rates or the final stage of deposition, we ignore inertia and apply the long-wave approximation. For steady flows, the velocity distribution, total discharge, and section-averaged flux are obtained analytically in terms of the fluid property and the geometry of the channel cross-section. Nonlinear stationary waves, which connect a uniform depth upstream to another uniform depth downstream, are then investigated, for both wet and dry beds. A numerical scheme is applied to calculate the transient flow evolution. The final development of the stationary wave due to steady discharge upstream is obtained numerically and the relation between the tongue-like shape of the wave front and the fluid property is discussed. The phase speed of the stationary wave is also derived analytically. Finally, the transient spreading of a finite fluid mass released from a reservoir after a dam break is simulated numerically. The transient development of the front and the final extent of deposition are examined.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2001 Cambridge University Press

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