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Splashing of droplets impacting superhydrophobic substrates

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 May 2019

Enrique S. Quintero
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de los Descubrimientos s/n 41092, Sevilla, Spain
Guillaume Riboux
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de los Descubrimientos s/n 41092, Sevilla, Spain
José Manuel Gordillo*
Affiliation:
Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de los Descubrimientos s/n 41092, Sevilla, Spain
*
Email address for correspondence: jgordill@us.es

Abstract

A drop of radius $R$ of a liquid of density $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}$, viscosity $\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}$ and interfacial tension coefficient $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ impacting a superhydrophobic substrate at a velocity $V$ keeps its integrity and spreads over the solid for $V<V_{c}$ or splashes, disintegrating into tiny droplets violently ejected radially outwards for $V\geqslant V_{c}$, with $V_{c}$ the critical velocity for splashing. In contrast with the case of drop impact onto a partially wetting substrate, Riboux & Gordillo (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 113, 2014, 024507), our experiments reveal that the critical condition for the splashing of water droplets impacting a superhydrophobic substrate at normal atmospheric conditions is characterized by a value of the critical Weber number, $We_{c}=\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}\,V_{c}^{2}\,R/\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}\sim O(100)$, which hardly depends on the Ohnesorge number $Oh=\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}/\sqrt{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}\,R\,\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}}$ and is noticeably smaller than the corresponding value for the case of partially wetting substrates. Here we present a self-consistent model, in very good agreement with experiments, capable of predicting $We_{c}$ as well as the full dynamics of the drop expansion and disintegration for $We\geqslant We_{c}$. In particular, our model is able to accurately predict the time evolution of the position of the rim bordering the expanding lamella for $We\gtrsim 20$ as well as the diameters and velocities of the small and fast droplets ejected when $We\geqslant We_{c}$.

Type
JFM Papers
Copyright
© 2019 Cambridge University Press 

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