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Subcritical versus supercritical transition to turbulence in curved pipes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2015

J. Kühnen
Affiliation:
IST Austria, Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
P. Braunshier
Affiliation:
Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna, Austria
M. Schwegel
Affiliation:
Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna, Austria
H. C. Kuhlmann
Affiliation:
Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, A-1060 Vienna, Austria
B. Hof
Affiliation:
IST Austria, Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Transition to turbulence in straight pipes occurs in spite of the linear stability of the laminar Hagen–Poiseuille flow if both the amplitude of flow perturbations and the Reynolds number $\mathit{Re}$ exceed a minimum threshold (subcritical transition). As the pipe curvature increases, centrifugal effects become important, modifying the basic flow as well as the most unstable linear modes. If the curvature (tube-to-coiling diameter $d/D$ ) is sufficiently large, a Hopf bifurcation (supercritical instability) is encountered before turbulence can be excited (subcritical instability). We trace the instability thresholds in the $\mathit{Re}-d/D$ parameter space in the range $0.01\leqslant d/D\leqslant 0.1$ by means of laser-Doppler velocimetry and determine the point where the subcritical and supercritical instabilities meet. Two different experimental set-ups are used: a closed system where the pipe forms an axisymmetric torus and an open system employing a helical pipe. Implications for the measurement of friction factors in curved pipes are discussed.

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Rapids
Copyright
© 2015 Cambridge University Press 

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References

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