Abe H., Antonia R. A. & Kawamura H. 2006 Structure of the scalar dissipation field in a turbulent channel flow. In *Proc. of Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer Conf. 5*, Dubrovnik, Croatia.

Abe H., Antonia R. A. & Kawamura H. 2008 Transport equations for the enstrophy and scalar dissipation rate in a turbulent channel flow. In *Proc. of 7th Intl ERCOFTAC Symp. on Engng Turbulence Modelling and Measurements*, Limassol, Cyprus.

Abe H., Antonia R. A. & Kawamura H. 2009 Correlation between small-scale velocity and scalar fluctuations in a turbulent channel flow. J. Fluid Mech. 627, 1–32.

Abe H., Kawamura H. & Choi H. 2004 *a* Very large-scale structures and their effects on the wall shear-stress fluctuations in a turbulent channel flow up to *Re* _{τ} = 640. ASME J. Fluids Engng 126, 835–843.

Abe H., Kawamura H. & Matsuo Y. 2001 Direct numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent channel flow with respect to the Reynolds number dependence. ASME J. Fluids Engng 123, 382–393.

Abe H., Kawamura H. & Matsuo Y. 2004 *b* Surface heat-flux fluctuations in a turbulent channel flow up to *Re* _{τ}= 1020 with *Pr* = 0.025 and 0.71. Intl J. Heat and Fluid Flow 25, 404–419.

del Álamo J. C. & Jiménez J. 2003 Spectra of the very large anisotropic scales in turbulent channels. Phys. Fluids 15, 41–44.

del Álamo J. C., Jiménez J., Zandonade P. & Moser R. D. 2004 Scaling of the energy spectra of turbulent channels. J. Fluid Mech. 500, 135–144.

Antonia R. A, Chambers A. J., Friehe C. A & Van Atta C. W. 1979 Temperature ramps in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 99–108.

Antonia R. A. & Kim J. 1991 Similarity between turbulent kinetic energy and temperature spectra in the near-wall region. Phys. Fluids 276, 989–991.

Antonia R. A., Kim J. & Browne L. W. B. 1991 Some characteristics of small-scale turbulence in a turbulent duct flow. J. Fluid Mech. 233, 369–388.

Antonia R. A. & Kim J. 1994 A numerical study of local isotropy of turbulence. Phys. Fluids 6 (2), 834–841.

Antonia R. A., Krishnamoorthy L. V. & Fulachier L. 1988 Correlation between the longitudinal velocity fluctuation and temperature fluctuation in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 31 (4), 723–730.

Antonia R. A., Rajagopalan S., Subramanian C. S. & Chambers A. J. 1982 Reynolds-number dependence of the structure of a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 121, 123–140.

Antonia R. A., Ould-Rouis M., Anselmet F. & Zhu Y. 1997 Analogy between predictions of Kolmogorov and Yaglom. J. Fluid Mech. 332, 395–409.

Antonia R. A., Zhou T. & Zhu Y. 1998 Three-component vorticity measurements in a turbulent grid flow. J. Fluid Mech. 374, 29–57.

Antonia R. A., Zhu Y., Anselmet F. & Ould-Rouis M. 1996 Comparison between the sum of the second-order velocity structure functions and the second-order temperature structure function. Phys. Fluids 8, 3105–3111.

Ashurst W. T., Kerstein A. R., Kerr R. M. & Gibson C. H. 1987 Alignment of vorticity and scalar gradient with strain rate in simulated Navier–Stokes turbulence. Phys. Fluids 30, 2343–2353.

Batchelor G. K. 1946 The theory of axisymmetric turbulence. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 186, 480–502.

Batchelor G. K. 1959 Small-scale variation of convected quantities like temperature in turbulent fluid. Part 1. General discussion and the case of small conductivity. J. Fluid Mech. 5, 113–133.

Béguier C., Dekeyser I. & Launder B. E. 1978 Ratio of scalar and velocity dissipation time scales in shear flow turbulence. Phys. Fluids 21, 307–310.

Bell D. M. & Ferziger J. H. 1993 Turbulent Boundary Layer DNS with passive scalars. In Near-Wall Turbulent Flows (ed. So R. M. C., Speziale C. G. & Launder B. E.), pp. 327–336. Elsevier Science.

Blackburn H. M., Mansour N. N. & Cantwell B. J. 1996 Topology of fine-scale motions in turbulent channel flow. J. Fluid Mech. 310, 269–292.

Brown G. L. & Thomas A. S. W. 1977 Large structure in a turbulent boundary layer. Phys. Fluids 20 (10), S243–S252.

Burattini P. & Antonia R. A. 2005 Approach to the 4/5 and 4/3 laws for nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. In *Eighth Australasian Heat and Mass Transfer Conf*., Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia.

Chandrasekhar S. 1950 The theory of axisymmetric turbulence. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 242, 557–577.

Chassaing P., Antonia R. A., Anselmet F., Joly L. & Sarkar S. 2002 Variable Density Fluid Turbulence, Kluwer Academic.

Chen C.-H. P. & Blackwelder R. F. 1978 Large-scale motion in a turbulent boundary layer: a study using temperature contamination. J. Fluid Mech. 89, 1–31.

Christensen K. T. & Adrian R. J. 2001 Statistical evidence of hairpin vortex packets in wall turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 431, 433–443.

Corrsin S. 1951 On the Spectrum of isotropic temperature fluctuations in an isotropic turbulence. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 469–473.

Corrsin S. 1953 Remarks on turbulent heat transfer: an account of some features of the phenomenon in fully turbulent regions. In *Proc. of the First Iowa Thermodynamics Symp*., pp. 5–30. State University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Fulachier L. & Antonia R. A. 1984 Spectral analogy between temperature and velocity fluctuations in several turbulent flows. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 27, 987–997.

Fulachier L. & Dumas R. 1976 Spectral analogy between temperature and velocity fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 77, 257–277.

George W. K. & Hussein H. J. 1991 Locally axisymmetric turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 233, 1–23.

Guezennec Y., Stretch D. & Kim J. 1990 The structure of turbulent channel flow with passive scalar transport. In *Proc. of the Summer Program 1990*, Centre for Turbulence Research, pp. 127–138. Stanford University.

Hoyas S. & Jiménez J. 2008 Reynolds number effects on the Reynolds-stress budgets in turbulent channels. Phys. Fluids 20, 101511.

Hutchins N. & Marusic I. 2007 Evidence of very long meandering features in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech. 579, 1–28.

Iritani Y., Kasagi N. & Hirata M. 1985 Heat transfer mechanism and associated turbulence structure in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. In Turbulent Shear Flows 4 (ed. Bradbury L. J. S. Durst F. Launder B. E. Schmidt F. W. and Whitelaw J. H.), pp. 223–234. Springer.

Jiménez J. 1998 The largest scales of turbulent wall flows. In *CTR Annual Research Briefs*, pp. 137–154. Stanford University.

Johansson A. V. & Wikström P. M. 1999 DNS and modelling of passive scalar transport in turbulent channel flow with a focus on scalar dissipation rate modelling. Flow Turbulence Combust. 63, 223–245.

Kader B. A. 1981 Temperature and concentration profiles in fully turbulent boundary layers. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 24, 1541–1544.

Kasagi N. & Ohtsubo Y. 1993 Direct numerical simulation of low Prandtl number thermal field in a turbulent channel flow. In Turbulent Shear Flows 8 (ed. Durst F., Friedrich R., Launder B. E., Schmidt F. W., Schumann U. and Whitelaw J. H.), pp. 97–119. Springer.

Kasagi N. Tomita Y. & Kuroda A. 1992 Direct numerical simulation of passive scalar field in a turbulent channel flow. ASME J. Heat Transfer 144, 598–606.

Kawamura H., Abe H. & Matsuo Y. 1999 DNS of turbulent heat transfer in channel flow with respect to Reynolds and Prandtl number effects. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow 20, 196–207.

Kawamura H., Abe H. Matsuo Y. & Choi H. 2002 Large-scale structures of velocity and scalar fields in turbulent channel flows. In Intl Symp. on Dynamics and Statistics of Coherent Structures in Turbulence: Roles of Elementary Vortices pp. 49–64, Tokyo.

Kawamura H., Abe H. & Matsuo Y. 2004 Very large-scale structures observed in DNS of turbulent channel flow with passive scalar transport. In *Proc. of 15th Australasian Fluid Mech. Conf*., The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Kawamura H., Ohsaka K., Abe H. & Yamamoto K. 1998 DNS of turbulent heat transfer in channel flow with low to medium–high Prandtl number fluid. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow 19, 482–491.

Kim J. & Moin P. 1989 Transport of passive scalars in a turbulent channel flow. In Turbulent Shear Flows 6, (ed. André J.-C., Cousteix J., Durst F., Launder B. E., Schmidt F. W. and Whitelaw J. H.), pp. 85–96, Springer.

Krogstad P.-Å. & Antonia R. A. 1994 Structure of turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough walls. J. Fluid Mech. 277, 1–21.

Launder B. E. 1976 Heat and mass transport Topics Appl. Phys. 12, 231–287.

Moin P. & Mahesh K. 1998 Direct numerical simulation: a tool in turbulence research. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 30, 539-578.

Morinishi Y., Lund T. S., Vasilyev O. V. & Moin P. 1998 Fully conservative higher order finite difference schemes for incompressible flow. J. Comput. Phys. 143, 90–124.

Nagano Y. & Kim C. 1988 A two-equation model for heat transport in wall turbulent shear flows. ASME J. Heat Transfer 110, 583–589.

Nagano Y. & Shimada M. 1996 Development of a two-equation heat transfer model based on direct simulations of turbulent flows with different Prandtl numbers. Phys. Fluids 8, 3379–3402.

Pumir A. 1994 A numerical study of the mixing of a passive scalar in three dimensions in the presence of a mean gradient. Phys. Fluids 6 (6), 2118–2132.

Rajagopalan S. & Antonia R. A. 1979 Some properties of the large structure in a fully developed turbulent duct flow. Phys. Fluids 22 (4), 614–622.

Robinson S. K. 1991 The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure. *Tech Rep*. TM103859. NASA.

Rotta J. C. 1964 Temperaturverteilungen in der turbulenten grenzschicht an der ebenen platte. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 7, 215–228.

Ruetsch G. R. & Maxey M. R. 1992 The evolution of small-scale structures in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Phys. Fluids A 4, 2747–2760.

Spalart P. R., Moser R. D. & Rogers M. M. 1991 Spectral methods for the Navier–Stokes equations with one infinite and two periodic directions. J. Comput. Phys. 96, 297–324.

Sreenivasan K. R. & Antonia R. A. 1997 The phenomenology of small-scale turbulence. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29, 435–472.

Subramanian C. S., Rajagopalan S., Antonia R. A. & Chambers A. J. 1982 Comparison of conditional sampling and averaging techniques in a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 123, 335–362.

Tanahashi M., Kang S.-J., Miyamoto T., Shiokawa S. & Miyauchi T. 2004 Scaling law of fine scale eddies in turbulent channel flows up to *Re* _{τ} = 800. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow 25, 331–340.

Tavoularis S. & Corrsin S. 1981 Experiments in nearly homogeneous shear flow with a uniform mean temperature gradient. Part 1. The fine structure. J. Fluid Mech. 104, 311–347.

Taylor R. J. 1958 Thermal structures in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. Aust. J. Phys. 11, 168–176.

Warhaft Z. 2000 Passive scalars in turbulent flows. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 32, 203–240.

Yoshizawa A. 1988 Statistical modelling of passive-scalar diffusion in turbulent shear flows. J. Fluid Mech. 195, 541–555.