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Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

  • D. Beilharz (a1), A. Guyon (a1), E. Q. Li (a2), M.-J. Thoraval (a2) (a3) and S. T. Thoroddsen (a2)...
Abstract

Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Email addresses for correspondence: Erqiang.Li@KAUST.edu.sa, sigurdur.thoroddsen@kaust.edu.sa
References
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Type Description Title
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 20a: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 300 fps. Horizontal extent: 6.16 mm.

 Video (677 KB)
677 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9b: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 250 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 19.0 mm.

 Video (3.4 MB)
3.4 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.8 mm. Vertical extent: 6.7 mm.

 Video (4.6 MB)
4.6 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 10a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 5 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.0 mm. Vertical extent: 9.0 mm.

 Video (3.4 MB)
3.4 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 20c: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 100 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.24 mm.

 Video (1.1 MB)
1.1 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 12a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 30 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.1 mm. Vertical extent: 12.1 mm.

 Video (546 KB)
546 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9c: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 20 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 4.5 mm.

 Video (87 KB)
87 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11b2: Drop viscosity is 1,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 100,000 fps and the playback rate is 60 fps. Horizontal extent: 0.27 mm. Vertical extent: 1.01 mm.

 Video (696 KB)
696 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 16a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 300 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.24 mm.

 Video (3.8 MB)
3.8 MB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Beilharz et al. supplementary material
Supplementary figures

 PDF (2.4 MB)
2.4 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 16a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 300 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.24 mm.

 Video (2.1 MB)
2.1 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 20c: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 100 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.24 mm.

 Video (2.3 MB)
2.3 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9a: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 21 mm.

 Video (2.2 MB)
2.2 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11b: Drop viscosity is 1,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 137,254 fps and the playback rate is 3 fps. Horizontal extent: 0.23 mm. Vertical extent: 1.12 mm.

 Video (20 KB)
20 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.8 mm. Vertical extent: 6.7 mm.

 Video (9.3 MB)
9.3 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 10b: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.7 mm. Vertical extent: 10.4 mm.

 Video (2.0 MB)
2.0 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 7a: Drop viscosity is 10 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 2 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.7 mm. Vertical extent: 2.7 mm.

 Video (190 KB)
190 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9a: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 21 mm.

 Video (4.3 MB)
4.3 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 21a: Drop viscosity is 100 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 20,000 fps and the playback rate is 100 fps. Horizontal extent: 5.60 mm.

 Video (867 KB)
867 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 10b: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.7 mm. Vertical extent: 10.4 mm.

 Video (3.9 MB)
3.9 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 21a: Drop viscosity is 100 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 20,000 fps and the playback rate is 100 fps. Horizontal extent: 5.60 mm.

 Video (449 KB)
449 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11b2: Drop viscosity is 1,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 100,000 fps and the playback rate is 60 fps. Horizontal extent: 0.27 mm. Vertical extent: 1.01 mm.

 Video (387 KB)
387 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 18a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 10,000 fps and the playback rate is 200 fps Horizontal extent: 3.92 mm.

 Video (2.7 MB)
2.7 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 10a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 5 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 125 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.0 mm. Vertical extent: 9.0 mm.

 Video (1.8 MB)
1.8 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 12a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 30 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.1 mm. Vertical extent: 12.1 mm.

 Video (309 KB)
309 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9b: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 250 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 19.0 mm.

 Video (6.5 MB)
6.5 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 18a: Drop viscosity is 10,000 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 10,000 fps and the playback rate is 200 fps Horizontal extent: 3.92 mm.

 Video (1.3 MB)
1.3 MB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 7a: Drop viscosity is 10 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 2 fps. Horizontal extent: 2.7 mm. Vertical extent: 2.7 mm.

 Video (270 KB)
270 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 9c: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 25,454 fps and the playback rate is 20 fps. Horizontal extent: 3.9 mm. Vertical extent: 4.5 mm.

 Video (140 KB)
140 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 20a: Drop viscosity is 500 cSt and the pool is 1 cSt. Recording frame rate is 30,000 fps and the playback rate is 300 fps. Horizontal extent: 6.16 mm.

 Video (321 KB)
321 KB
VIDEO
Movies

Beilharz et al. supplementary movie
Figure 11b: Drop viscosity is 1,000 cSt and the pool is 0.65 cSt. Recording frame rate is 137,254 fps and the playback rate is 3 fps. Horizontal extent: 0.23 mm. Vertical extent: 1.12 mm.

 Video (21 KB)
21 KB

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