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    Fedorov, Alexey V. and Melville, W. Kendall 2009. A Model of Strongly Forced Wind Waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 39, Issue. 10, p. 2502.

    Yao, Aifeng and Wu, Chin H. 2005. Incipient breaking of unsteady waves on sheared currents. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 17, Issue. 8, p. 082104.

    Banner, Michael L. and Song, Jin-Bao 2002. On Determining the Onset and Strength of Breaking for Deep Water Waves. Part II: Influence of Wind Forcing and Surface Shear. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 32, Issue. 9, p. 2559.

    Banner, Michael L. and Tian, Xin 1996. Energy and Momentum Growth Rates in Breaking Water Waves. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue. 14, p. 2953.

    Sha, Huyun and Vanden-Broeck, J.-M. 1995. Solitary waves on water of finite depth with a surface or bottom shear layer. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 7, Issue. 5, p. 1048.

    Dimas, Athanassios A. and Triantafyllou, George S. 1994. Nonlinear interaction of shear flow with a free surface. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 260, Issue. -1, p. 211.

    Breyiannis, George Bontozoglou, Vasilis Valougeorgis, Dimitris and Goulas, Apostolos 1993. Large-amplitude interfacial waves on a linear shear flow in the presence of a current. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 249, Issue. -1, p. 499.

    Saffman, P.G. 1993. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 1992.

    Zhou, Donghuo and Mendoza, Cesar 1993. Surface drift effect on wind energy transfer to waves. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, Issue. C8, p. 14527.

    Caponp, E. A. Yuen, H. C. Milinazzo, F. A. and Saffman, P G. 1991. Water-wave instability induced by a drift layer. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 222, Issue. -1, p. 207.

  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 216
  • July 1990, pp. 93-101

Effect of a surface shear layer on gravity and gravity–capillary waves of permanent form

  • F. A. Milinazzo (a1) (a2) and P. G. Saffman (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2006

Calculations are carried out of the shape of gravity and gravity–capillary waves on deep water in the presence of a thin sheet of uniform vorticity which models the effect of a wind drift layer. The dependence of the fluid speed at the wave crest is determined and compared for gravity waves with the theory of Banner & Phillips (1974). It is found that this theory underestimates the retardation due to drift and tendency to break. The retardation disappears when capillary forces are significant, but in this case it is found that there can be a significant alteration of the wave shape.

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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
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