The stability of a horizontal layer of fluid heated from below is examined when, in addition to a steady temperature difference between the walls of the layer, a time-dependent sinusoidal perturbation is applied to the wall temperatures. Only infinitesimal disturbances are considered. The effects of the oscillating temperature field are treated by a perturbation expansion in powers of the amplitude of the applied field. The shift in the critical Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of frequency, and it is found that it is possible to advance or delay the onset of convection by time modulation of the wall temperatures.
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