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Elliptic jets. Part 1. Characteristics of unexcited and excited jets

  • Fazle Hussain (a1) and Hyder S. Husain (a1)

This paper summarizes experimental studies of incompressible elliptic jets of different aspect ratios and initial conditions, and effects of excitations at selected frequencies and amplitudes. Elliptic jets are quite different from the extensively studied plane and circular jets - owing mainly to the fact that the azimuthal curvature variation of a vortical structure causes its non-uniform self-induction and hence complex three-dimensional deformation. Such deformation, combined with properly selected excitation can substantially alter entrainment and other turbulence phenomena, thus suggesting preference for the elliptic shape in many jet applications. The dominance of coherent structures in the jet far field is evident from the finding that switching over of the cross-section shape continues at least up to 100 equivalent diameters De. The locations and the number of switchovers are strongly dependent on the initial condition, on the aspect ratio, and, when excited, on the Strouhal number and the excitation level. We studied jets with constant exit momentum thickness θe, all around the perimeter, thus separating the effects of azimuthal variations of θe, (typical of elliptic jets) and of the shear-layer curvature. Also investigated are the instability characteristics, and enhanced entrainment caused by bifurcation as well as pairing of vortical structures. We discuss shear-layer and jet- column domains, and find the latter to be characterized by two modes : the preferred mode and the stable pairing mode - similar to those found in circular jets -both modes scaling on the newly-defined lengthscale De. The paper documents some time- average measurements and their comparison with those in circular and plane jets.

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