Skip to main content

Experiments on the breakup of drop-impact crowns by Marangoni holes

  • Abdulrahman B. Aljedaani (a1), Chunliang Wang (a1), Aditya Jetly (a1) and S. T. Thoroddsen (a1)

We investigate experimentally the breakup of the Edgerton crown due to Marangoni instability when a highly viscous drop impacts on a thin film of lower-viscosity liquid, which also has different surface tension than the drop liquid. The presence of this low-viscosity film modifies the boundary condition, giving effective slip to the drop along the solid substrate. This allows the high-viscosity drop to form a regular bowl-shaped crown, which rises vertically away from the solid and subsequently breaks up through the formation of a multitude of Marangoni holes. Previous experiments have proposed that the breakup of the crown results from a spray of fine droplets ejected from the thin low-viscosity film on the solid, e.g. Thoroddsen et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 557, 2006, pp. 63–72). These droplets can hit the inner side of the crown forming spots with lower surface tension, which drives a thinning patch leading to the hole formation. We test the validity of this assumption with close-up imaging to identify individual spray droplets, to show how they hit the crown and their lower surface tension drive the hole formation. The experiments indicate that every Marangoni-driven patch/hole is promoted by the impact of such a microdroplet. Surprisingly, in experiments with pools of higher surface tension, we also see hole formation. Here the Marangoni stress changes direction and the hole formation looks qualitatively different, with holes and ruptures forming in a repeatable fashion at the centre of each spray droplet impact. Impacts onto films of the same liquid, or onto an immiscible liquid, do not in general form holes. We furthermore characterize the effects of drop viscosity and substrate-film thickness on the overall evolution of the crown. We also measure the three characteristic velocities associated with the hole formation: i.e. the Marangoni-driven growth of the thinning patches, the rupture speed of the resulting thin films inside these patches and finally the growth rate of the fully formed holes in the crown wall.

Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence:
Hide All
Banks, D., Ajawara, C. & Aguilar, G. 2012 Effects of drop and film viscosity on drop impacts onto thin films. ICLASS 2012 12th Triennial International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. Heidelberg, Germany, September 2-6.
Cossali, G. E., Marengo, M., Coghe, A. & Zhdanov, S. 2004 The role of time in single drop splash on thin film. Exp. Fluids 36 (6), 888900.
Culick, F. E. C. 1960 Comments on a ruptured soap film. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 11281129.
Deegan, R. D., Brunet, P. & Eggers, J. 2008 Complexities of splashing. Nonlinearity 21, C1C11.
De Gennes, P.-G., Brochard-Wyart, F. & Quéré, D. 2004 Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves. Springer.
Edgerton, H. E. & Killian, J. R. 1939 Flash! Seeing the Unseen by Ultra High-speed Photography. Boston, Hale, Cushman and Flint.
Fedorchenko, A. I. & Wang, A. B. 2004 On some common features of drop impact on liquid surfaces. Phys. Fluids 16 (5), 13491365.
Fujimoto, H., Ogino, T., Takuda, H. & Hatta, N. 2001 Collision of a droplet with a hemispherical static droplet on a solid. Intl J. Multiphase Flow 27 (7), 12271245.
Geppert, A., Chatzianagnostou, D., Meister, C., Gomaa, H., Lamanna, G. & Weigand, B. 2016 Classification of impact morphology and splashing/deposition limit for N-Hexadecane. Atomiz. Sprays. 26 (10), 9831007.
Jensen, O. E. & Grotberg, J. B. 1992 Insoluble surfactant spreading on a thin viscous film: shock evolution and film rupture. J. Fluid Mech. 240, 259288.
Josserand, C. & Zaleski, S. 2003 Droplet splashing on a thin film. Phys. Fluids 15, 16501657.
Kim, H., Muller, K., Shardt, O., Afkhami, S. & Stone, H. A. 2017 Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquids drive transport without surface contamination. Nat. Phys. 13, 17452481.
Kittel, H. M., Roisman, I. V. & Tropea, C. 2016 Outcome of drop impact onto a liquid film of different viscosities. ILASS - Europe 27th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, 4–7 September 2016, Brighton, UK, DWI-03.
Li, E. Q., Al-Otaibi, S. A., Vakarelski, I. U. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2014 Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids. J. Fluid Mech. 744, R1.
Liang, G. & Mudawar, I. 2016 Review of mass and momentum interactions during drop impact on a liquid film. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer 101, 577599.
Marston, J. O., Truscott, T. T., Speirs, N. B., Mansoor, M. M. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2016 Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres. J. Fluid Mech. 794, 506529.
Opfer, L., Roisman, I. V., Venzmer, J., Klostermann, M. & Tropea, C. 2014 Droplet-air collisions dynamics: evolution of the film thickness. Phys. Rev. E 89, 013023.
Peregrine, D. H. 1981 The fascination of fluid mechanics. J. Fluid Mech. 106, 5980.
Rein, M. 1993 Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces. Fluid Dyn. Res. 12 (2), 6193.
Roisman, I. V., Horvat, K. & Tropea, C. 2006 Spray impact: rim transverse instability initiating fingering and splash and description of a secondary spray. Phys. Fluids 18, 102104.
Roisman, I. V. & Tropea, C. 2002 Impact of a drop onto a wetted wall: description of crown formation and propagation. J. Fluid Mech. 472, 373397.
Savva, N. & Bush, J. W. M. 2008 Viscous sheet retraction. J. Fluid Mech. 626, 211240.
Tan, E. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 1998 Marangoni instability of two liquids mixing at a free surface. Phys. Fluids 10, 30383040.
Taylor, G. I. 1959 The dynamics of thin sheets of fluid. III. Disintegration of fluid sheets. Proc R. Soc. Lond. A 253, 313321.
Thoraval, M.-J., Takehara, K., Etoh, T. G., Popinet, S., Ray, P. J. C., Zaleski, S. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2012 Von Kármán vortex street within an impacting drop. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 264506.
Thoraval, M. J. & Thoroddsen, S. T. 2013 Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids. Phys. Rev. E 88, 061001.
Thoroddsen, S. T. 2002 The ejecta sheet generated by the impact of a drop. J. Fluid Mech. 451, 373381.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Etoh, T. G. & Takehara, K. 2006a Crown breakup by Marangoni instability. J. Fluid Mech. 557, 6372.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Etoh, T. G. & Takehara, K. 2006b Crown-breakup by a thousand holes. Phys. Fluids 18, 091110; Gallery of Fluid Motion.
Thoroddsen, S. T., Thoraval, M.-J., Takehara, K. & Etoh, T. G. 2011 Droplet splashing by a slingshot mechanism. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 034501.
Trujillo, M. F. & Lee, C. F. 2001 Modeling crown formation due to the splashing of a droplet. Phys. Fluids 13, 25032516.
Wang, A. B. & Chen, C. C. 2000 Splashing impact of a single drop onto very thin liquid films. Phys. Fluids 12 (9), 21552158.
Weiss, D. A. & Yarin, A. L. 1999 Single drop impact onto liquid films: neck distortion, jetting, tiny bubble entrainment, and crown formation. J. Fluid Mech. 385, 229254.
Yarin, A. L. 2006 Drop impact dynamics: splashing, spreading, receding, bouncing.... Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 159192.
Yarin, A. L. & Weiss, D. A. 1995 Impact of drops on solid surfaces: self-similar capillary waves and splashing as a new type of kinematic discontinuity. J. Fluid Mech. 283, 141173.
Zhang, L. V., Toole, J., Fezzaa, K. & Deegan, R. D. 2012 Evolution of the ejecta sheet from the impact of a drop with a deep pool. J. Fluid Mech. 690, 515.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *

JFM classification

Type Description Title

Aljedaani et al. supplementary movie 3
Video corresponding to Figure 5b

 Video (2.3 MB)
2.3 MB

Aljedaani et al. supplementary movie 1
Video corresponding to Figure 1.

 Video (10.1 MB)
10.1 MB

Aljedaani et al. supplementary movie 4
Video for Figure 14(b).

 Video (7.0 MB)
7.0 MB

Aljedaani et al. supplementary movie 2
Video corresponding to Figure 5a

 Video (2.4 MB)
2.4 MB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed