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Fine radial jetting during the impact of compound drops

  • J. M. Zhang (a1) (a2), E. Q. Li (a1) (a3) and S. T. Thoroddsen (a1)

Abstract

We study the formation of fine radial jets during the impact of a compound drop on a smooth solid surface. The disperse-phase droplets are heavier than the outer continuous phase of the main drop and sink to the bottom of the drop before it is released from the nozzle. The droplets often arrange into a regular pattern around the axis of symmetry. This configuration produces narrow high-speed jets aligned with every internal droplet. These radial jets form during the early impulsive phase of the impact, by local focusing of the outer liquid, which is forced into the narrowing wedge under each internal droplet. The pressure-driven flow forces a thin sheet under and around each droplet, which levitates and separates from the solid surface. Subsequently, surface tension re-forms this horizontal sheet into a cylindrical jet, which is typically as narrow as ${\sim}35~\unicode[STIX]{x03BC}\text{m}$ , while smaller droplets can produce even thinner jets. We systematically change the number of inner droplets and the properties of the main drop to identify the jetting threshold. The jet speed and thickness are minimally affected by the viscosity of the outer liquid, suggesting pure inertial focusing. The jets emerge at around eight times the drop impact velocity. Jetting stops when the density of the inner droplets approaches that of the continuous phase. The interior droplets are often greatly deformed and broken up into satellites by the outer viscous stretching, through capillary pinch-off or tip streaming.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.

Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence: sigurdur.thoroddsen@kaust.edu.sa

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JFM classification

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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 1
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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 3
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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 7
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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 8
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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 10
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Zhang and Thoroddsen supplementary movie 11
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Fine radial jetting during the impact of compound drops

  • J. M. Zhang (a1) (a2), E. Q. Li (a1) (a3) and S. T. Thoroddsen (a1)

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