Abaid, N., Adalsteinsson, D., Agyapong, A. & McLaughlin, R. M. 2004 An internal splash: levitation of falling spheres in stratified fluids. Phys. Fluids 16 (5), 1567–1580.
Akers, B. & Belmonte, A. 2006 Impact dynamics of a solid sphere falling into a viscoelastic micellar fluid. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 135, 97–108.
Batchelor, G. K. 1967 An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press.
Bercovici, D. & Mahoney, J. 1994 Double flood basalts and plume head separation at the 660-kilometer discontinuity. Science 266, 1367–1369.
Brenner, H. 1961 The slow motion of a sphere through a viscous fluid towards a plane surface. Chem. Engng Sci. 16, 242–251.
Camassa, R., Falcon, C., Lin, J., McLaughlin, R. M. & Parker, R. 2009 Prolonged residence times for particles settling through stratified miscible fluids in the Stokes regime. Phys. Fluids 21, 031702-1–4.
Camassa, R., McLaughlin, R. M., Moore, M. & Vaidya, A. 2008 Brachistochrone paths in potential and stokes flow past a sphere. Phys. Lett. A 372, 6742–6749.
Condie, S. A. & Bormans, M. 1997 The influence of density stratification on particle settling, dispersion and population growth. J. Theor. Biol. 187, 65–75.
Darwin, C. 1953 Note on hydrodynamics. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 49, 342–254.
Denman, K. L. & Gargett, A. E. 1995 Biological–physical interactions in the upper ocean: the role of vertical and small scale transport processes. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 27, 225–255.
Happel, J. & Brenner, H. 1965 Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics with Special Applications to Particulate Media. Noordhoff International Publishing.
Happel, J. & Byrne, B. J. 1954 Motion of a sphere and fluid in a cylindrical tube. Ind. Engng Chem. 46 (6), 1181–1186.
Higdon, J. J. L. 1979 A hydrodynamic analysis of flagellar propulsion. J. Fluid Mech. 90 (4), 685–711.
Jurine, D., Jaupart, C., Brandeis, G. & Tackley, P. J. 2005 Penetration of mantle plumes through depleted lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 110, B10104.1–B10104.18.
Kellogg, W. W. 1980 Aerosols and climate. In Interaction of Energy and Climate (ed. Bach, W., Prankrath, J. & Williams, J.), pp. 281–296. D. Reidel.
Lin, J. 2009 An experimental and mathematical study on the prolonged residence time of a sphere falling through stratified fluids at low Reynolds number. PhD thesis, University North Carolina, North Carolina, NC.
Linton, C. M. 1995 Multipole methods for boundary-value problems involving a sphere in a tube. IMA J. Appl. Maths 55, 187–204.
Ma, T. & Wang, S. 2001 A generalized Poincaré–Hopf index formula and its applications to 2-D incompressible flows. Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl. 2, 467–482.
MacIntyre, S., Alldredge, A. L. & Gottschalk, C. C. 1995 Accumulation of marine snow at density discontinuities in the water column. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40 (3), 449–468.
Manga, M. & Stone, H. A. 1995 Low Reynolds number motion of bubbles, drops and rigid spheres through fluid–fluid interfaces. J. Fluid Mech. 287, 279–298.
Maxey, M. R. & Riley, J. J. 1983 Equation of motion for a small rigid sphere in a non-uniform flow. Phys. Fluids 26 (4), 883–889.
Oseen, C. W. 1927 Hydrodynamik. Academische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.
Parsons, J. D., Bush, J. W. M. & Syvitski, J. P. M. 2001 Hyperpycnal plume formation from riverine outflows with small sediment concentrations. Sedimentology 48, 465–478.
Rard, J. A. & Miller, D. G. 1979 The mutual diffusion coefficients of NaCl–H2O and CaCl2–H2O at 25°C from Rayleigh interferometry. J. Sol. Chem. 8, 701–716.
Srdić-Mitrović, A. N., Mohamed, N. A. & Fernando, H. J. S. 1999 Gravitational settling of particles through density interfaces. J. Fluid Mech. 381, 175–198.
Sutor, M. M. & Dagg, M. J. 2008 The effects of vertical sampling resolution on estimates of Plankton biomass and rate calculations in stratified water columns. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 78, 107–121.
Tanner, R. I. 1963 End effects in falling-ball viscometry. J. Fluid Mech. 17, 161–170.
Taylor, G. 1953 Dispersion of soluble matter in solvent flowing slowly through a tube. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 219, 186–203.
Turco, R. P., Toon, O. B., Ackerman, T. P., Pollack, J. B. & Sagan, C. 1990 Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter. Science 247 (4939), 662–665.
Widder, E. A., Johnsen, S., Bernstein, S. A., Case, J. F. & Neilson, D. J. 1999 Thin layers of bioluminescent copepods found at density discontinuities in the water column. Mar. Biol. 134, 429–437.
Yick, K. Y., Torres, C. R., Peacock, T. & Stocker, R. 2009 Enhanced drag of a sphere settling in a stratified fluid at small Reynolds Number. J. Fluid. Mech. 632, 49–68.