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Generation of secondary droplets in coalescence of a drop at a liquid–liquid interface

  • B. RAY (a1), G. BISWAS (a1) and A. SHARMA (a2)

When a droplet of liquid 1 falls through liquid 2 to eventually hit the liquid 2–liquid 1 interface, its initial impact on the interface can produce daughter droplets of liquid 1. In some cases, a partial coalescence cascade governed by self-similar capillary-inertial dynamics is observed, where the fall of the secondary droplets in turn continues to produce further daughter droplets. Results show that inertia and interfacial surface tension forces largely govern the process of partial coalescence. The partial coalescence is suppressed by the viscous force when Ohnesorge number is below a critical value and also by gravity force when Bond number exceeds a critical value. Generation of secondary drop is observed for systems of lower Ohnesorge number for liquid 1, lower and intermediate Ohnesorge number for liquid 2 and for low and intermediate values of Bond number. Whenever the horizontal momentum in the liquid column is more than the vertical momentum, secondary drop is formed. A transition regime from partial to complete coalescence is obtained when the neck radius oscillates twice. In this regime, the main body of the column can be fitted to power-law scaling model within a specific time range. We investigated the conditions and the outcome of these coalescence events based on numerical simulations using a coupled level set and volume of fluid method (CLSVOF).

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