Abu-Nada, E.
2008
Application of nanofluids for heat transfer enhancement of separated flows encountered in a backward facing step. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow
29 (1), 242–249.

Alam, M. & Sandham, N. D.
2000
Direct numerical simulation of ‘short’ laminar separation bubbles with turbulent reattachment. J. Fluid Mech.
403, 223–250.

Albarède, P. & Provansal, M.
1995
Quasi-periodic cylinder wakes and the Ginzburg–Landau equation. J. Fluid Mech.
291, 191–222.

Armaly, B. F., Durst, F., Pereira, J. C. F. & Schonung, B.
1983
Experimental and theoretical investigation of backward-facing step flow. J. Fluid Mech.
127, 473–496.

Astarita, T. & Cardone, G.
2000
Thermofluidynamic analysis of the flow in a sharp 180^{°} turn channel. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
20 (3–4), 188–200.

Barkley, D., Blackburn, H. M. & Sherwin, S. J
2008
Direct optimal growth analysis for timesteppers. Intl J. Numer. Meth. Fluids
57 (9), 1435–1458.

Barkley, D., Gomes, M. G. M. & Henderson, R. D.
2002
Three-dimensional instability in flow over a backward-facing step. J. Fluid Mech.
473, 167–190.

Barkley, D. & Henderson, R. D.
1996
Three-dimensional Floquet stability analysis of the wake of a circular cylinder. J. Fluid Mech.
322, 215–242.

Barleon, L., Casal, V. & Lenhart, L.
1991
MHD flow in liquid–metal-cooled blankets. Fusion Engng Des.
14 (3), 401–412.

Barleon, L., Mack, K. J. & Stieglitz, R.
1996
The MEKKA-facility: A Flexible Tool to Investigate MHD-flow Phenomena. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.

Barton, I. E.
1997
The entrance effect of laminar flow over a backward-facing step geometry. Intl J. Numer. Meth. Fluids
25 (6), 633–644.

Blackburn, H. M., Barkley, D. & Sherwin, S. J.
2008
Convective instability and transient growth in flow over a backward-facing step. J. Fluid Mech.
603, 271–304.

Boccaccini, L. V., Giancarli, L., Janeschitz, G., Hermsmeyer, S., Poitevin, Y., Cardella, A. & Diegele, E.
2004
Materials and design of the European DEMO blankets. J. Nucl. Mater.
329, 148–155.

Brede, M., Eckelmann, H. & Rockwell, D.
1996
On secondary vortices in the cylinder wake. Phys. Fluids
8 (8), 2117–2124.

Bühler, L.
2007
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics for fusion blankets. In Magnetohydrodynamics: Historical Evolution and Trends (ed. Molokov, S., Moreau, R. & Moffatt, H. K.), Fluid Mechanics and its Applications, vol. 80, pp. 171–194. Springer.

Carmo, B. S., Sherwin, S. J., Bearman, P. W. & Willden, R. H. J.
2008
Wake transition in the ow around two circular cylinders in staggered arrangements. J. Fluid Mech.
597, 1–29.

Chung, Y. M., Tucker, P. G. & Roychowdhury, D. G.
2003
Unsteady laminar flow and convective heat transfer in a sharp 180^{°} bend. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow
24 (1), 67–76.

Cruchaga, M. A.
1998
A study of the backward-facing step problem using a generalized streamline formulation. Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng
14 (8), 697–708.

Drazin, P. G. & Reid, W. H.
2004
Hydrodynamic Stability. Cambridge University Press.

Duŝek, J., Le Gal, P. & Fraunié, P.
1994
A numerical and theoretical study of the first Hopf bifurcation in a cylinder wake. J. Fluid Mech.
264, 59–80.

Erturk, E.
2008
Numerical solutions of 2-D steady incompressible flow over a backward-facing step. Part I: high Reynolds number solutions. Comput. Fluids
37 (6), 633–655.

Ghia, K. N., Osswald, G. A. & Ghia, U.
1989
Analysis of incompressible massively separated viscous flows using unsteady Navier–Stokes equations. Intl J. Numer. Meth. Fluids
9 (8), 1025–1050.

Griffith, M. D., Leweke, T., Thompson, M. C. & Hourigan, K.
2008
Steady inlet flow in stenotic geometries: convective and absolute instabilities. J. Fluid Mech.
616, 111–133.

Griffith, M. D., Thompson, M. C., Leweke, T., Hourigan, K. & Anderson, W. P.
2007
Wake behaviour and instability of flow through a partially blocked channel. J. Fluid Mech.
582 (1), 319–340.

Hammond, D. A. & Redekopp, L. G.
1998
Local and global instability properties of separation bubbles. Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids)
17 (2), 145–164.

Henderson, R. D.
1997
Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation in turbulent wake transition. J. Fluid Mech.
352, 65–112.

Henderson, R. D. & Barkley, D.
1996
Secondary instability in the wake of a circular cylinder. Phys. Fluids
8, 1683.

Hirota, M., Fujita, H., Syuhada, A., Araki, S., Yoshida, T. & Tanaka, T.
1999
Heat/mass transfer characteristics in two-pass smooth channels with a sharp 180-deg turn. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer
42 (20), 3757–3770.

Hussam, W. K., Thompson, M. C. & Sheard, G. J.
2012a
Enhancing heat transfer in a high Hartmann number magnetohydrodynamic channel flow via torsional oscillation of a cylindrical obstacle. Phys. Fluids
24 (11), 113601.

Hussam, W. K., Thompson, M. C. & Sheard, G. J.
2012b
Optimal transient disturbances behind a circular cylinder in a quasi-two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic duct flow. Phys. Fluids
24 (2), 024105.

Johnson, T. A. & Patel, V. C.
1999
Flow past a sphere up to a Reynolds number of 300. J. Fluid Mech.
378, 19–70.

Kaiktsis, L., Karniadakis, G. E. & Orszag, S. A.
1991
Onset of three-dimensionality, equilibria, and early transition in flow over a backward-facing step. J. Fluid Mech.
231, 501–528.

Karniadakis, G. E., Israeli, M. & Orszag, S. A.
1991
High-order splitting methods for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. J. Comput. Phys.
97 (2), 414–443.

Kirillov, I. R., Reed, C. B., Barleon, L. & Miyazaki, K.
1995
Present understanding of MHD and heat transfer phenomena for liquid metal blankets. Fusion Engng Des.
27, 553–569.

Krall, K. M. & Sparrow, E. M.
1966
Turbulent heat transfer in the separated, reattached, and redevelopment regions of a circular tube. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer
88 (1), 131–136.

Landau, L. D. & Lifshitz, E. M.
1976
Mechanics, p. 93. Pergamon.

Lanzerstorfer, D. & Kuhlmann, H. C.
2012
Global stability of the two-dimensional flow over a backward-facing step. J. Fluid Mech.
693, 1–27.

Larson, H. K.
1959
Heat transfer in separated flows. J. Aero. Sci.
26 (11), 731–738.

Le Gal, P., Nadim, A. & Thompson, M.
2001
Hysteresis in the forced Stuart–Landau equation: application to vortex shedding from an oscillating cylinder. J. Fluids Struct.
15 (3), 445–457.

Lehoucq, R. B., Sorenson, D. C. & Yang, C.
1998
ARPACK Users’ Guide: Solution of Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems with Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Methods. SIAM.

Leweke, T. & Williamson, C. H. K.
1998
Cooperative elliptic instability of a vortex pair. J. Fluid Mech.
360, 85–119.

Liou, T.-M., Chen, C.-C., Tzeng, Y.-Y. & Tsai, T.-W.
2000
Non-intrusive measurements of near-wall fluid flow and surface heat transfer in a serpentine passage. Intl J. Heat Mass Transfer
43 (17), 3233–3244.

Liou, T.-M., Tzeng, Y.-Y. & Chen, C.-C.
1999
Fluid flow in a 180 deg sharp turning duct with different divider thicknesses. Trans. ASME J. Turbomach.
121 (3), 569–576.

Marquillie, M. & Ehrenstein, U. W. E.
2003
On the onset of nonlinear oscillations in a separating boundary-layer flow. J. Fluid Mech.
490, 169–188.

Metzger, D. E. & Sahm, M. K.
1986
Heat transfer around sharp 180-deg turns in smooth rectangular channels. Trans. ASME J. Heat Transfer
108 (3), 500–506.

Moffatt, H. K.
1985
Magnetostatic equilibria and analogous Euler flows of arbitrarily complex topology. Part 1. Fundamentals. J. Fluid Mech.
159, 359–378.

Mullin, T., Seddon, J. R. T., Mantle, M. D. & Sederman, A. J.
2009
Bifurcation phenomena in the flow through a sudden expansion in a circular pipe. Phys. Fluids
21 (1), 014110.

Natarajan, R. & Acrivos, A.
1993
The instability of the steady flow past spheres and disks. J. Fluid Mech.
254, 323–344.

Neild, A., Ng, T. W., Sheard, G. J., Powers, M. & Oberti, S.
2010
Swirl mixing at microfluidic junctions due to low frequency side channel fluidic perturbations. Sensors Actuators B
150 (2), 811–818.

Provansal, M., Mathis, C. & Boyer, L.
1987
Bénard–von Kármán instability: transient and forced regimes. J. Fluid Mech.
182, 1–22.

Ryan, K., Butler, C. J. & Sheard, G. J.
2012
Stability characteristics of a counter-rotating unequal strength Batchelor vortex pair. J. Fluid Mech.
696, 374–401.

Schumm, M., Berger, E. & Monkewitz, P.
1994
Self-excited oscillations in the wake of two-dimensional bluff bodies and their control. J. Fluid Mech.
271, 17–53.

Sheard, G. J.
2011
Wake stability features behind a square cylinder: focus on small incidence angles. J. Fluids Struct.
27 (5), 734–742.

Sheard, G. J., Fitzgerald, M. J. & Ryan, K.
2009
Cylinders with square cross-section: wake instabilities with incidence angle variation. J. Fluid Mech.
630, 43–69.

Sheard, G. J., Thompson, M. C. & Hourigan, K.
2003
A coupled Landau model describing the Strouhal–Reynolds number profile of a three-dimensional circular cylinder wake. Phys. Fluids
15 (9), L68–L71.

Sheard, G. J., Thompson, M. C. & Hourigan, K.
2004a
Asymmetric structure and non-linear transition behaviour of the wakes of toroidal bodies. Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids)
23 (1), 167–179.

Sheard, G. J., Thompson, M. C. & Hourigan, K.
2004b
From spheres to circular cylinders: non-axisymmetric transitions in the flow past rings. J. Fluid Mech.
506, 45–78.

Taneda, S.
1979
Visualization of separating Stokes flows. J. Phys. Soc. Japan
46, 1935–1942.

Thompson, M. C., Hourigan, K. & Sheridan, J.
1996
Three-dimensional instabilities in the wake of a circular cylinder. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
12 (2), 190–196.

Thompson, M. C. & Le Gal, P.
2004
The Stuart–Landau model applied to wake transition revisited. Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids)
23 (1), 219–228.

Thompson, M. C., Leweke, T. & Williamson, C. H. K.
2001
The physical mechanism of transition in bluff body wakes. J. Fluids Struct.
15 (3), 607–616.

Tomboulides, A. G. & Orszag, S. A.
2000
Numerical investigation of transitional and weak turbulent flow past a sphere. J. Fluid Mech.
416, 45–73.

Vo, T., Montabone, L. & Sheard, G. J.
2014
Linear stability analysis of a shear layer induced by differential coaxial rotation within a cylindrical enclosure. J. Fluid Mech.
738, 299–334.

Vo, T., Montabone, L. & Sheard, G. J.
2015
Effect of enclosure height on the structure and stability of shear layers induced by differential rotation. J. Fluid Mech.
765, 45–81.

Wang, T.-S. & Chyu, M. K.
1994
Heat convection in a 180-deg turning duct with different turn configurations. J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer
8 (3), 595–601.

Wee, D., Yi, T., Annaswamy, A. & Ghoniem, A. F.
2004
Self-sustained oscillations and vortex shedding in backward-facing step flows: simulation and linear instability analysis. Phys. Fluids
16 (9), 3361–3373.

Williamson, C. H. K.
1988
Defining a universal and continuous Strouhal–Reynolds number relationship for the laminar vortex shedding of a circular cylinder. Phys. Fluids
31 (10), 2742–2744.

Zhang, L. & Pothérat, A.
2013
Influence of the geometry on the two- and three-dimensional dynamics of the flow in a 180^{°} sharp bend. Phys. Fluids
25, 053605.