Asai, T.
1970
Stability of a plane parallel flow with variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Met. Soc. Japan
48, 129–139.

Bannon, P. R.
1996
On the anelastic approximation for a compressible atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.
53, 3618–3628.

Barnes, G. M. & Sieckman, K.
1984
The environment of fast-and slow-moving tropical mesoscale convective cloud lines. Mon. Weath. Rev.
112
(9), 1782–1794.

Bretherton, C. S.
1987
A theory for nonprecipitating moist convection between two parallel plates. Part I: thermodynamics and ‘linear’ solutions. J. Atmos. Sci.
44, 1809–1827.

Castaing, B., Gunaratne, G., Kadanoff, L., Libchaber, A. & Heslot, F.
1989
Scaling of hard thermal turbulence in Rayleigh–Bénard convection. J. Fluid Mech.
204
(1), 1–30.

Chandrasekhar, S.
1961
Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability. Oxford University Press.

Cuijpers, J. W. M. & Duynkerke, P. G.
1993
Large eddy simulation of trade wind cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.
50
(23), 3894–3908.

Deardorff, J. W.
1965
Gravitational instability between horizontal plates with shear. Phys. Fluids
8, 1027.

Deng, Q., Smith, L. M. & Majda, A. J.
2012
Tropical cyclogenesis and vertical shear in a moist Boussinesq model. J. Fluid Mech.
706, 384–412.

Emanuel, K.
1986
Some dynamical aspect of precipitating convection. J. Atmos. Sci.
43, 2183–2198.

Emanuel, K. A.
1994
Atmospheric Convection. Oxford University Press.

Fovell, R. & Ogura, Y.
1988
Numerical simulation of a midlatitude squall line in two dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci.
45
(24), 3846–3879.

Grabowski, W. W. & Clark, T. L.
1993
Cloud–environment interface instability, part II: extension to three spatial dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci.
50, 555–573.

Grabowski, W. W. & Moncrieff, M. W.
2001
Large-scale organization of tropical convection in two-dimensional explicit numerical simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.
127, 445–468.

Grabowski, W. W. & Smolarkiewicz, P. K.
1996
Two-time-level semi-Lagrangian modeling of precipitating clouds. Mon. Weath. Rev.
124
(3), 487–497.

Grabowski, W. W., Wu, X. & Moncrieff, M. W.
1996
Cloud-resolving modeling of tropical cloud systems during Phase III of GATE. Part I: two-dimensional experiments. J. Atmos. Sci.
53, 3684–3709.

Grabowski, W. W., Wu, X., Moncrieff, M. W. & Hall, W. D.
1998
Cloud-resolving modeling of cloud systems during Phase III of GATE. Part II: effects of resolution and the third spatial dimension. J. Atmos. Sci.
55
(21), 3264–3282.

Hendon, H. H. & Liebmann, B.
1994
Organization of convection within the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Geophys. Res.
99, 8073–8084.

Houze, R. A.
1993
Cloud Dynamics. Academic.

Houze, R. A. Jr.
2004
Mesoscale convective systems. Rev. Geophys.
42, G4003+.

Jorgensen, D. P., LeMone, M. A. & Trier, S. B.
1997
Structure and evolution of the 22 February 1993 TOGA COARE squall line: aircraft observations of precipitation, circulation, and surface energy fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci.
54
(15), 1961–1985.

Jung, J.-H. & Arakawa, A.
2005
Preliminary tests of multiscale modeling with a two-dimensional framework: sensitivity to coupling methods. Mon. Weath. Rev.
133
(3), 649–662.

Kessler, E.
1969
On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulations,
*Meteorological Monographs*
, vol. 32. American Meteorological Society.

Khouider, B., Han, Y., Majda, A. J. & Stechmann, S. N.
2012
Multiscale waves in an MJO background and convective momentum transport feedback. J. Atmos. Sci.
69, 915–933.

Kiladis, G. N., Wheeler, M. C., Haertel, P. T., Straub, K. H. & Roundy, P. E.
2009
Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys.
47, RG2003.

Kim, D., Sperber, K., Stern, W., Waliser, D., Kang, I.-S., Maloney, E., Wang, W., Weickmann, K., Benedict, J., Khairoutdinov, M., Lee, M.-I., Neale, R., Suarez, M., Thayer-Calder, K. & Zhang, G.
2009
Application of MJO simulation diagnostics to climate models. J. Climate
22
(23), 6413–6436.

Klein, R. & Majda, A.
2006
Systematic multiscale models for deep convection on mesoscales. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn.
20, 525–551.

Krishnamurti, R.
1970a
On the transition to turbulent convection. Part 1. The transition from two-to three-dimensional flow. J. Fluid Mech.
42
(2), 295–307.

Krishnamurti, R.
1970b
On the transition to turbulent convection. Part 2. The transition to time-dependent flow. J. Fluid Mech.
42
(2), 309–320.

Kuo, H. L.
1961
Convection in conditionally unstable atmosphere. Tellus
13
(4), 441–459.

Lafore, J. P. & Moncrieff, M. W.
1989
A numerical investigation of the organization and interaction of the convective and stratiform regions of tropical squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.
46
(4), 521–544.

Lau, W. K. M. & Waliser, D. E. (Eds) 2011
Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere–Ocean Climate System. Springer.

LeMone, M. A., Zipser, E. J. & Trier, S. B.
1998
The role of environmental shear and thermodynamic conditions in determining the structure and evolution of mesoscale convective systems during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci.
55
(23), 3493–3518.

Lilly, D. K.
1979
The dynamical structure and evolution of thunderstorms and squall lines. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
7, 117–161.

Lipps, F. B. & Hemler, R. S.
1982
A scale analysis of deep moist convection and some related numerical calculations. J. Atmos. Sci.
39, 2192–2210.

Liu, C. & Moncrieff, M. W.
2001
Cumulus ensembles in shear: implications for parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci.
58
(18), 2832–2842.

Lucas, C., Zipser, E. J. & Ferrier, B. S.
2000
Sensitivity of tropical west pacific oceanic squall lines to tropospheric wind and moisture profiles. J. Atmos. Sci.
57
(15), 2351–2373.

Majda, A. & Souganidis, P.
2000
The effect of turbulence on mixing in prototype reaction–diffusion systems. Commun. Pure Appl. Maths
53
(10), 1284–1304.

Majda, A. J. & Stechmann, S. N.
2008
Stochastic models for convective momentum transport. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
105, 17614–17619.

Majda, A. J. & Stechmann, S. N.
2009
A simple dynamical model with features of convective momentum transport. J. Atmos. Sci.
66, 373–392.

Majda, A. J. & Stechmann, S. N.
2011
Multiscale theories for the MJO. In Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere–Ocean Climate System (ed. Lau, W. K. M. & Waliser, D. E.). Springer.

Majda, A. J. & Xing, Y.
2010
New multi-scale models on mesoscales and squall lines. Commun. Math. Sci.
8
(1), 113–144.

Majda, A. J., Xing, Y. & Mohammadian, M.
2010
Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo. J. Fluid Mech.
657, 478–501.

Mapes, B. E., Tulich, S., Lin, J.-L. & Zuidema, P.
2006
The mesoscale convection life cycle: building block or prototype for large-scale tropical waves?. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans
42, 3–29.

Moncrieff, M. W.
1981
A theory of organized steady convection and its transport properties. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.
107
(451), 29–50.

Moncrieff, M. W.
1992
Organized convective systems: archetypal dynamical models, mass and momentum flux theory, and parameterization. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.
118
(507), 819–850.

Moncrieff, M. W.
2010
The multiscale organization of moist convection and the intersection of weather and climate. In Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? (ed. Sun, D.-Z. & Bryan, F.).
*Geophysical Monograph Series*
, vol. 189. pp. 3–26. American Geophysical Union.

Moncrieff, M. W. & Green, J. S. A.
1972
The propagation and transfer properties of steady convective overturning in shear. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.
98
(416), 336–352.

Moncrieff, M. W. & Miller, M. J.
1976
The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall lines. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.
102, 373–394.

Moncrieff, M. W., Shapiro, M., Slingo, J. & Molteni, F.
2007
Collaborative research at the intersection of weather and climate. WMO Bull.
56, 204–211.

Morrison, H. & Grabowski, W. W.
2008
Modeling supersaturation and subgrid-scale mixing with two-moment bulk warm microphysics. J. Atmos. Sci.
65
(3), 792–812.

Nakazawa, T.
1988
Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the Western Pacific. J. Met. Soc. Japan
66
(6), 823–839.

Ogura, Y. & Phillips, N. A.
1962
Scale analysis of deep and shallow convection in the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.
19, 173–179.

Pauluis, O.
2008
Thermodynamic consistency of the anelastic approximation for a moist atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.
65
(8), 2719–2729.

Pauluis, O., Balaji, V. & Held, I. M.
2000
Frictional dissipation in a precipitating atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.
57
(7), 989–994.

Pauluis, O. & Dias, J.
2012
Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere. Science
335
(6071), 953–956.

Pauluis, O. & Schumacher, J.
2010
Idealized moist Rayleigh–Bénard convection with piecewise linear equation of state. Commun. Math. Sci.
8, 295–319.

Pauluis, O. & Schumacher, J.
2011
Self-aggregation of clouds in conditionally unstable moist convection. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
108, 12623–12628.

Peters, N.
2000
Turbulent Combustion. Cambridge University Press.

Pruppacher, H. R. & Klett, J. D.
1997
Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. Kluwer Academic.

Rogers, R. R. & Yau, M. K.
1989
A Short Course in Cloud Physics. Butterworth–Heinemann.

Schumacher, J. & Pauluis, O.
2010
Buoyancy statistics in moist turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection. J. Fluid Mech.
648, 509–519.

Seitter, K. L. & Kuo, H.-L.
1983
The dynamical structure of squall-line type thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci.
40, 2831–2854.

Spiegel, E. A. & Veronis, G.
1960
On the Boussinesq approximation for a compressible fluid. Astrophys. J.
131, 442–447.

Spyksma, K. & Bartello, P.
2008
Small-scale moist turbulence in numerically generated convective clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.
65, 1967–1978.

Spyksma, K., Bartello, P. & Yau, M. K.
2006
A Boussinesq moist turbulence model. J. Turbul.
7, 1–24.

Stevens, B.
2005
Atmospheric moist convection. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
33
(1), 605–643.

Stevens, B.
2007
On the growth of layers of nonprecipitating cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci.
64, 2916–2931.

Straub, K. H., Haertel, P. T. & Kiladis, G. N.
2010
An analysis of convectively coupled Kelvin waves in 20 WCRP CMIP3 global coupled climate models. J. Climate
23
(11), 3031–3056.

Sukhatme, J., Majda, A. J. & Smith, L. M.
2012
Two-dimensional moist stratified turbulence and the emergence of vertically sheared horizontal flows. Phys. Fluids
24, 036602.

Vallis, G. K.
2006
Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-scale Circulation. Cambridge University Press.

Wu, X., Grabowski, W. W. & Moncrieff, M. W.
1998
Long-term behavior of cloud systems in TOGA COARE and their interactions with radiative and surface processes. Part I: two-dimensional modeling study. J. Atmos. Sci.
55
(17), 2693–2714.

Wu, X. & Moncrieff, M. W.
1996
Collective effects of organized convection and their approximation in general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci.
53
(10), 1477–1495.

Xu, K. M. & Randall, D. A.
1996
Explicit simulation of cumulus ensembles with the GATE Phase III data: comparison with observations. J. Atmos. Sci.
53, 3710–3736.

Zhang, C.
2005
Madden–Julian oscillation. Rev. Geophys.
43, G2003+.