The problem of forced acoustic oscillations in a pipe is studied theoretically. The oscillations are produced by a moving piston in one end of the pipe, while a variety of boundary conditions ranging from a completely closed to a completely open mouth at the other end are considered. All these boundary conditions are modelled by two parameters: a length correction and a reflexion coefficient equivalent to the acoustic impedance.
The linear theory predicts large amplitudes near resonance and nonlinear effects become crucially important. By expanding the equations of motion in a series in the Mach number, both the amplitude and wave form of the oscillation are predicted there.
In both the open- and closed-end cases the need for shock waves in some range of parameters is found. The amplitude of the oscillation is different for the two cases, however, being proportional to the square root of the piston amplitude in the closed-end case and to the cube root for the open end.
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