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Numerical study of acoustic radiation due to a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

  • Lian Duan (a1), Meelan M. Choudhari (a2) and Minwei Wu (a3)

Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by fully developed turbulence in a Mach 2.5 turbulent boundary layer, with an emphasis on the acoustic fluctuations radiated into the free stream. Single- and multi-point statistics of computed surface pressure fluctuations show good agreement with measurements and numerical simulations at similar flow conditions. Consistent with spark shadowgraphs obtained in free flight, the quasi-homogeneous acoustic near field in the free-stream region consists of randomly spaced wavepackets with a finite spatial coherence. The free-stream pressure fluctuations exhibit important differences from the surface pressure fluctuations in amplitude, frequency content and convection speeds. Such information can be applied towards improved modelling of boundary layer receptivity in conventional supersonic facilities and, hence, enable a better utilization of transition data acquired in such wind tunnels. The predicted acoustic characteristics are compared with the limited available measurements. Finally, the numerical database is used to understand the acoustic source mechanisms, with the finding that the supersonically convecting eddies that can directly radiate to the free stream are confined to the buffer zone within the boundary layer.

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