A semianalytical model for installed jet noise is proposed in this paper. We argue and conclude that there exist two distinct sound source mechanisms for installed jet noise, and the model is therefore composed of two parts to account for these different sound source mechanisms. Lighthill’s acoustic analogy and a fourth-order space–time correlation model for the Lighthill stress tensor are used to model the sound induced by the equivalent turbulent quadrupole sources, while the trailing-edge scattering of near-field evanescent instability waves is modelled using Amiet’s approach. A non-zero ambient mean flow is taken into account. It is found that, when the rigid surface is not so close to the jet as to affect the turbulent flow field, the trailing-edge scattering of near-field evanescent waves dominates the low-frequency amplification of installed jet noise in the far-field. The high-frequency noise enhancement on the reflected side is due to the surface reflection effect. The model agrees well with experimental results at different observer angles, apart from deviations caused by the mean-flow refraction effect at high frequencies at low observer angles.
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