We introduce, in spherical geometry, experiments on electro-hydrodynamic driven Rayleigh–Bénard convection that have been performed for both temperature-independent (‘GeoFlow I’) and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity properties (‘GeoFlow II’) with a measured viscosity contrast up to 1.5. To set up a self-gravitating force field, we use a high-voltage potential between the inner and outer boundaries and a dielectric insulating liquid; the experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on the International Space Station. We further run numerical simulations in three-dimensional spherical geometry to reproduce the results obtained in the ‘GeoFlow’ experiments. We use Wollaston prism shearing interferometry for flow visualization – an optical method producing fringe pattern images. The flow patterns differ between our two experiments. In ‘GeoFlow I’, we see a sheet-like thermal flow. In this case convection patterns have been successfully reproduced by three-dimensional numerical simulations using two different and independently developed codes. In contrast, in ‘GeoFlow II’, we obtain plume-like structures. Interestingly, numerical simulations do not yield this type of solution for the low viscosity contrast realized in the experiment. However, using a viscosity contrast of two orders of magnitude or higher, we can reproduce the patterns obtained in the ‘GeoFlow II’ experiment, from which we conclude that nonlinear effects shift the effective viscosity ratio.