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  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 704
  • August 2012, pp. 1-4

When does a granular material behave like a continuum fluid?

  • John R. de Bruyn (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2012.226
  • Published online: 18 July 2012
Abstract
Abstract

A flowing granular material can behave like a collection of individual interacting grains or like a continuum fluid, depending in large part on the energy imparted to the grains. As yet, however, we have no general understanding of how or under what conditions the fluid limit is reached. Marston, Li & Thoroddsen (J. Fluid Mech., this issue, vol. 704, 2012, pp. 5–36) use high-speed imaging to investigate the ejection of grains from a granular bed due to the impact of a spherical projectile. Their high temporal resolution allows them to study the very fast processes that take place immediately following the impact. They demonstrate that for very fine grains and high impact energies, the dynamics of the ejecta is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to what is seen in analogous experiments with fluid targets.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: debruyn@uwo.ca
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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.M. A. Ambroso , R. D. Kamien & D. J. Durian 2005 Dynamics of shallow impact cratering. Phys. Rev. E 72, 041305.

2.J. F. Boudet , Y. Amarouchene & H. Kellay 2006 Dynamics of impact cratering in shallow sand layers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 158001.

3.S. Deboeuf , P. Gondret & M. Rabaud 2009 Dynamics of grain ejection by sphere impact on a granular bed. Phys. Rev. E 79, 041306.

4.J. R. de Bruyn & A. M. Walsh 2004 Penetration of spheres into loose granular media. Can. J. Phys. 82, 439446.

5.S. J. de Vet & J. R. de Bruyn 2007 Shape of impact craters in granular media. Phys. Rev. E 76, 041306.

6.S. J. de Vet , B. Yohannes , K. M. Hill & J. R. de Bruyn 2010 Collapse of a rectangular well in a quasi-two-dimensional granular bed. Phys. Rev. E 82, 041304.

7.D. I. Goldman & P. Umbanhowar 2008 Scaling and dynamics of sphere and disk impact into granular media. Phys. Rev. E 77, 021308.

8.H. Katsuragi & D. J. Durian 2007 Unified force law for granular impact cratering. Nature Phys. 3, 420423.



11.S. T. Thoroddsen & A. Q. Shen 2001 Granular jets. Phys. Fluids 13, 46.

12.J. S. Uehara , M. A. Ambroso , R. P. Ojha & D. J. Durian 2003 Low-speed impact crater in loose granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 194301.

13.A. M. Walsh , K. E. Holloway , P. Habdas & J. R. de Bruyn 2003 Morphology and scaling of impact craters in granular media. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 104301.

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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
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