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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 14 February 2019
The advent of refrigerated transport made fresh beef a global commodity, linking South American and Australian producers to hungry consumers in Europe and North America. With vast supplies of cattle, and growing markets in Japan, Russia, and beyond, China was the last great frontier of this global transformation. Rather than a single export trade, China’s beef industry was a complex and multidirectional network of producers, processors, and consumers, its many production chains each facing distinct commercial, logistic, and political challenges. This article examines three such chains, the Qing-era caravan trade that drove live sheep and cattle to Beijing, the Harbin meat-packing industry that grew up around the Russian China Eastern Railway, and Japanese-dominated export of beef from Qingdao. A cross-section of these issues shows how the industry as a whole adapted to the new pressures and opportunities of globalization, as well as those presented by technology, foreign investment, imperialism, and war.
This research was supported by the Historical Anthropology of Chinese Society project at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and presented at the University of Oxford China Centre and the ‘Commodity Trading Companies in the First Global Economy’ workshop at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. I am grateful to Laura Kenney, Rotem Kowner, Maria Myutel, Stephen Smith, Luman Wang, Lan Wu, and especially this Journal’s editors and readers for commenting on earlier drafts. Guan Yuxia, Zhang Wei, and Ao Dun introduced me to Hulunbuir and to numerous producers, who could provide quick but detailed answers to my many technical questions about the region’s cattle and beef industries. Misako Suzuki gave me a home, which I must say was rather wonderful of her.
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33 AS, 03-19-093-06 ‘E’shang yun niu chu Zhangjiakou shou banshui an (Payment of conveyance tax by Russian horse and cattle exports from Zhangjiakou)’, 1914; N. E. Edinarkhova, ‘K istorii Russkikh Mongolii (On the history of Russians in Mongolia)’, http://pandia.ru/text/80/080/33149.php (consulted 11 November 2016).
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36 JACAR, A06033010900, ‘Mōkō bokugyō jyōkyō chōsa (Investigation of pastoral industries in Manchuria and Mongolia)’ Chōsa shiryō (Survey materials), 26, 1937, pp. 203–5. JACAR, B11091049300, Consulate of Japan in Harbin, ‘Kairaru oyobi sono fukin Mōko chihō ni okeru kachiku narabi ni dō fukusanhin bōeki jōkyō ni kan suru ken (Stock raising and secondary industries in Hailar and surrounding Mongol areas)’, , pp. 168–72.
37 JACAR, B11092082700, ‘Chō, torui (Intestines and stomachs)’, 0434; JACAR, B11091049300, ‘Kairaru oyobi sore fukin (Hailar and its vicinity’, 1922, p. 172.
38 Hulunbeier meng zhi, pp. 160, 813.
39 Yoshiro, Sakatani, Manchuria, a survey of its economic development, New York: Garland Publishing, 1980 Google Scholar (first published 1930), p. 180; JACAR, A06033517400, Manmō keizai yōran (Overview of economy in Manchuria and Mongolia), 1916, pp. 553–61.
40 China Eastern Railway, North Manchuria and the Chinese Eastern Railway, Harbin: CER Printing Office, 1924, pp. 141–144 Google Scholar .
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48 Haerbin shizhi, pp. 474, 480.
49 China Maritime Customs, Returns of trade, 1915, vol. 3, Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate of Exports, 1916, p. 569; Returns of trade, 1919, vol. 1, p. 536.
50 JACAR, B11092063800, Consulate of Japan in Harbin, ‘Kita Manshū Tōyō tetsudō sōsyakuchi ni okeru shokuniku jūyō jōkyō hōkoku no ken (Situation regarding meat requirements in leased zone along China Eastern Railway in northern Manchuria)’, .
51 CER, North Manchuria, pp. 141–4.
52 Haerbin shizhi, p. 479; Suihua diqu zhi (Gazetteer of Suihua district), Harbin: Heilongjiang renmin, 1995, pp. 400–2.
53 CER, North Manchuria, pp. 144–5; JACAR, B12083628300, Consulate of Japan in Manzhouli, ‘Kanjōru shi (Ganjuur market)’ , p. 439. Registration documents of Produce Export are held in the Public Records Office of Hong Kong, HKRS111-4-176. For more views on the Vesteys, see Yarrington, ‘Vestey cattle enterprise’; Phimster, ‘Meat and monopolies’; Wilcox, ‘Ranching modernization’.
54 Haerbin shizhi, p. 469.
55 A. W. Pearse, The world’s meat future, London: Constable and Company, 1920, p. 294.
56 Critchell and Raymond, History of the frozen meat trade, pp. 239–40.
57 CER, North Manchuria, pp. 135, 142, 150; JACAR, B11090352400, ‘Urajō ni okeru bukka ni kan shi hōkoku no ken (Report on prices in Vladivostok)’, 1914.
58 Haerbin shizhi, p. 474.
59 JACAR, B11092081800, ‘Shokuryōhin kankei zakken, nikurui (Items related to foodstuffs, meat)’, 1922, pp. 81–2; JACAR, B12083628300, Consulate of Japan in Manzhouli, ‘Kanjōru shi ji Taishō 12 nen 11 gatsu (Report on investigation of the Ganjuur market in November of the 12th Taishō year)’, 1923, pp. 422–6.
60 CER, North Manchuria, p. 144; JACAR, B10074047500, Consulate of Japan in Manzhouli, ‘Eikoku shokuhin yushutsu kaisha (British Produce Export Company)’, 1925.
61 JACAR, B12083628300, ‘Kanjōru shi’, p. 439.
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64 JACAR, B06050487000, ‘Kita Shi ni okeru sakusan shigen kankei (Husbandry resources in northern China)’, 1931.
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67 Seitō jitsugyō kyōkai geppō (Monthly Bulletin of the Qingdao Chamber of Commerce) (henceforth COC), September 1918.
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69 JACAR, B06050487000, ‘Seitō shi ni okeru shiryō shigen chōsa ni okeru hōkokushō (Report on investigation of feed resources in Qingdao)’; Harro Maat, ‘Commodities and anti-commodities: rice on Sumatra 1915–1925’, in Francesca Bray, Peter A. Coclanis, Edda L. Fields-Black, and Dagmar Schäfer, eds., Rice global networks and new histories, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015, pp. 335–54.
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71 ‘Shantung beef’, [US] Daily Consular and Trade Reports, 3, 1914, p. 94.
72 JACAR, C03024532300, ‘Reisōzen “Hanametto” gō Seitō deiri no ken (Concerning the entry and exit of the cold storage ship Hammamet from Qingdao)’, 1915.
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78 ‘Shanghai suoshi zhi Danyang niurou (Danyang beef eaten in Shanghai)’, Xinghua (Rising China), 24, 16, 1927.
79 Doeppers, Feeding Manila, pp. 245–6; Yuzuru, Ninomiya, Bei-Hi kan jiyū tsūshō bōeki mondai to Hirippin Guntō kokusai bōeki no sūsei ni tsuite (Problem of US–Philippines free trade and the direction of commerce in the Philippine archipelago), Yokohama: Yokohama Specie Bank, 1932, p. 52 Google Scholar .
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82 JACAR, B11090356700, ‘Nichijō seikatsuhin kakaku chōsa ichi ken (Investigation into the price of daily use items)’, 1920.
83 COC, June 1924.
84 ‘Shandong niurou chukou qingkuang (State of Shandong beef exports)’, Yinhang yuebao (Banking Monthly), 3, 2, 1923; Jingshi shuiwu yuebao (Capital Taxation Monthly), 2, 1923, pp. 712–3. The 1928 figure comes from ‘Feilubin zhengfu de weisheng gonggao (Sanitary pronouncements of the Philippine government)’, Jianyan yuebao (Inspection Monthly), 20, 1931, pp. 65, 66 (on complaints against operating businesses).
85 COC, December 1923.
86 JACAR, B13081541500, ‘Seitō gyūniku tsumitori mondai (Problem of beef acquisition in Qingdao)’, 1929.
87 Shiye gongbao, 4, 25, 1931; Shiye gongbao, 1, 22, 1931; Shiye gongbao, 40, 1931.
88 Nongye zhoubao (Agriculture weekly), 1, 22, 1931, p. 687.
89 JACAR, A08072530100, ‘Manshūkoku shuyo yushutsuhin (yūzeihin) kunibetsu yushutsu gakuhyō narabini koreni tai suru yushutsu zeiritsu gairanhyō (Important exports of Manchukuo chart of (taxable) exports by nation and export tax)’; Japan-Manchoukuo year-book, 1934, pp. 500, 529.
90 Jones, ‘Argentine refrigerated meat industry’, p. 116. The author’s current research aims to produce estimates of production and consumption in Republican China.
91 Sturgeon, Timothy J., ‘From commodity chains to value chains: interdisciplinary theory building in an age of globalization’, in Jennifer Bair, ed., Frontiers of commodity chains research, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009, pp. 110–135 Google Scholar .
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