Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-ms7nj Total loading time: 0.698 Render date: 2022-08-10T01:34:22.529Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Restoring Miranda: gender and the limits of European patriarchy in the early modern Atlantic world*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 October 2012

Susan D. Amussen
Affiliation:
University of California, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Rd, Merced, CA 95343, USA E-mail: Samussen@ucmerced.edu
Allyson M. Poska
Affiliation:
Department of History, University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA 22401, USA E-mail: aposka@umw.edu

Abstract

Atlantic history has become fashionable as a way of linking the histories of Europe and the Americas. However, much work in Atlantic history does little to challenge the national biases of traditional colonial and imperial history. This article argues that gender provides an important conceptual tool for a trans-imperial and comparative exploration, just as it provided important conceptual structures for all the peoples of the Atlantic world. An examination of the research on two gendered issues – work, and family and sexuality – demonstrates that while Europeans attempted to impose their ideas on the various societies that they encountered in Africa and the Americas, such attempts were rarely successful. Gender not only provides the basis for a trans-imperial analysis of the Atlantic world but also enables us to reorient our scholarly perspective in the Atlantic, highlighting the agency of non-European peoples and exposing the limits of European patriarchy.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

The authors are grateful to Ann Little, Nancy Shoemaker, and Karin Wulf for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article, and to the participants in ‘Centering Families in the Atlantic World’ at the University of Texas Institute for Historical Research for their insights.

References

1 Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra, ‘Entangled histories: borderland historiographies in new clothes’, American Historical Review, 112, 3, June 2007, pp. 787799CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Peter Hulme, Colonial encounters: Europe and the native Caribbean, 1492–1797, London: Routledge, 1986Google Scholar

Peter Hulme and William H. Sherman, ed., The Tempest and its travels, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000Google Scholar

Kim Hall, Things of darkness: economies of race and gender in early modern England, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995, pp.141158Google Scholar

Jonathan Goldberg, Tempest in the Caribbean, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2003Google Scholar

2 Jack P. Greene and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Atlantic history: a critical appraisal, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009Google Scholar

3 Greene and Morgan, Atlantic history, p. 10Google Scholar

Alison Games, ‘Atlantic history: definitions, challenges and opportunities’, American Historical Review, 111, 3, 2006, p. 747Google Scholar

4 J. H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic world: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830, London: Yale University Press, 2006Google Scholar

Paul Gilroy's Black Atlantic: modernity and double consciousness, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993Google Scholar

John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the creation of the Atlantic world, 1400–1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992Google Scholar

David Eltis, The rise of African slavery in the Americas, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000Google Scholar

Stephanie Smallwood, Saltwater slavery: a middle passage from Africa to the American diaspora, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007Google Scholar

Kristin Mann, ‘Shifting paradigms in the study of the African diaspora and of Atlantic history and culture’, in Kristin Mann and Edna G. Bay, eds., Rethinking the African diaspora: the making of a black Atlantic world in the Bight of Benin and Brazil, London: Routledge, 2001, pp. 321Google Scholar

Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, eds., Women and slavery, 2 vols., Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2007–08Google Scholar

5 Ann Stoler, Carnal knowledge and imperial power: race and the intimate in colonial rule, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002, p. 209Google Scholar

6 Amy Turner Bushnell, ‘Indigenous America and the limits of the Atlantic world, 1493–1825’, in Greene and Morgan, Atlantic history, pp. 191–221Google Scholar

7 Merry Wiesner-Hanks, Christianity and sexuality in the early modern world: regulating desire, reforming practice, New York: Routledge, 2000, p. 62Google Scholar

Constance Jordan, Renaissance feminism: literary texts and political models, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990Google Scholar

8 Josiah Blackmore, Moorings: Portuguese expansion and the writing of Africa, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2008Google Scholar

René P. Garay, ‘First encounter: epic, gender, and the Portuguese overseas venture’, in Asela Rodrigues de Laguna, ed., The global impact of the Portuguese language, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001, pp. 7794Google Scholar

9 Gerald Roe Crone, ed., The voyages of Cadamosto and other documents on western Africa in the second half of the fifteenth century, Hakluyt Society second series no. 80, London: Hakluyt Society, 1937, p. 32Google Scholar

10 Gomes Eannes de Azurara [sic], Chronicle of the discovery and conquest of Guinea, trans. Charles Beazley and Edgar Prestage, vol. 1, New York: B. Franklin, 1963, p. 43.

11 Herman L. Bennett, ‘“Sons of Adam”: text, context, and the early modern African subject’, Representations, 92, 2005, pp. 3031Google Scholar

Ivana Elbl, ‘Cross-cultural trade and diplomacy: Portuguese relations with West Africa, 1441–1521’, Journal of World History, 3, 1992, pp. 177181Google Scholar

12 Laura Giannetti, Lelia's kiss: imagining gender, sex, and marriage in Italian renaissance comedy, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009Google Scholar

13 Louis Montrose, ‘The work of gender in the discourse of discovery’, Representations, 33, special issue: The New World, 1991, pp. 141Google Scholar

14 Kim Hall, Things of darkness, p. 25Google Scholar

Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Indians and English: facing off in early America, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000, p. 39Google Scholar

15 Peter Erickson and Clark Hulse, eds., Early modern visual culture: representation, race, and empire in renaissance England, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000, pp. 4597Google Scholar

Anne McClintock, Imperial leather: race, gender, and sexuality in the colonial contest, New York: Routledge, 1995Google Scholar

16 Charles Gibson, ed., The Spanish tradition in America, New York: Harper & Row, 1968, pp. 113120Google Scholar

17 Susan Schroeder, Stephanie Wood, and Robert Haskett, eds., Indian women of early Mexico, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997Google Scholar

Irene Silverblatt, Moon, sun, and witches: gender ideologies and class in Inca and colonial Peru, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987Google Scholar

David Cahill and Blanca Tovías, eds., New world, first nations: native peoples of MesoAmerica and the Andes under colonial rule, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2006, pp. 144168Google Scholar

18 Theda Perdue, Cherokee women: gender and culture change, 1700–1835, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998Google Scholar

Peter C. Mancall and James H. Merrell, eds., American encounters: natives and newcomers from European contact to Indian removal, 1500–1850, New York: Routledge, 2000, p. 96Google Scholar

19 Gunlög Fur, A nation of women: gender and colonial encounters among the Delaware Indians, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, p. 19Google Scholar

Kathleen M. Brown, Good wives, nasty wenches, and anxious patriarchs: gender, race, and power in colonial Virginia, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996, p. 57Google Scholar

Karen Kupperman, Indians and English, p. 39Google Scholar

20 Kathleen M. Brown, ‘The Anglo-Algonquin gender frontier’, in Nancy Shoemaker, ed., Negotiators of change: historical perspectives on Native American women, New York: Routledge, 1995, p. 27Google Scholar

21 Richard Brathwait, The good wife, London, 1619, fol. B6v.

22 Leon Battista Alberti, The family in Renaissance Florence, book three, trans. Renée Neu Watkins, Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 1994, pp. 77–8.

23 Juan Luis Vives, The education of a Christian woman: a sixteenth-century manual, ed. and trans. Charles Fantazzi, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. 125 and 254Google Scholar

24 Susan C. Karant-Nunn and Merry Wiesner-Hanks, eds., Luther on women: a sourcebook, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 64Google Scholar

25 Matthew Griffith, Bethel, or a Forme for Families, London, 1633, p. 282Google Scholar

26 Amy Louise Erickson, Women and property in early modern England, London: Routledge, 1993Google Scholar

James B. Collins, ‘The economic role of women in seventeenth-century France’, French Historical Studies, 16, 2, 1989, p. 458Google Scholar

Marta V. Vicente, ‘Images and realities of work: women and guilds in early modern Barcelona’, in Magdalena S. Sánchez and Alain Saint-Saens, eds., Spanish women in the golden age: images and realities, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, pp. 128129Google Scholar

Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, ‘From mere survival to near success: women's economic strategies in early modern Portugal’, Journal of Women's History, 13, 2, 2001, pp. 68Google Scholar

27 Allyson M. Poska, Women and authority in early modern Spain: the peasants of Galicia, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 38Google Scholar

Collins, ‘Economic role of women’, p. 465Google Scholar

Amy M. Froide, Never married: single women in early modern England, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 19Google Scholar

Helen Nader, Power and gender in renaissance Spain: eight women of the Mendoza family, 1450–1650, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004Google Scholar

Barbara Stephenson, The power and patronage of Marguerite of Navarre, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004Google Scholar

Barbara J. Harris, English aristocratic women, 1450–1550: marriage and family, property and careers, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000Google Scholar

28 Amy Louise Erickson, Women and property, p. 221Google Scholar

Grace Coolidge, ‘“Neither dumb, deaf, nor destitute of understanding”: women as guardians in early modern Spain’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 36, 3, 2005, pp. 673693CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sandra Cavallo and Lyndan Warner, eds., Widowhood in medieval and early modern Europe, New York: Longman, 1999Google Scholar

Nicole Pellegrin and Colette Winn, eds., Veufs, veuves et veuvage dans la France d'ancien régime, Paris: Champion, 2003Google Scholar

29 Daryl M. Hafter, ed., European women and preindustrial craft, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995Google Scholar

Barbara A. Hanawalt, ed., Women and work in preindustrial Europe, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986Google Scholar

Margaret R. Hunt, Women in eighteenth-century Europe, Harlow: Longman, 2010Google Scholar

Marjorie Kenniston McIntosh, Working women in English society, 1300–1620, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005Google Scholar

Isabel Pérez Molia et al., eds., Las mujeres en el antiguo régimen: imagen y realidad s. XVI–XVIII, Barcelona: Icaria, 1994, pp. 5990Google Scholar

Clare Haru Crowston, Fabricating women: the seamstresses of old regime France, 1675–1791, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001Google Scholar

Darlene Abreu-Ferreira, ‘Fishmongers and shipowners: women in maritime communities of early modern Portugal’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 31, 1, 2000, pp. 723Google Scholar

Amândio Jorge Morais Barros, ‘Mulheres e comércio. linhas de intervenção da mulher portuense no negócio durante o século XVI’, Portuguese Studies Review, 13, 1, 2005, pp. 229268Google Scholar

30 Sara Mendelson and Patricia Crawford, Women in early modern England, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998Google Scholar

Patricia Seed, American pentimento: the invention of Indians and the pursuit of riches, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, p. 47Google Scholar

Deborah Simonton, A history of European women's work, 1700 to the present, London: Routledge, 1998, pp. 2734Google Scholar

Marilyn Stone and Carmen Benito-Vessels, eds., Women at work in Spain: from the middle ages to early modern times, New York: Peter Lang, 1998, pp. 101120Google Scholar

31 Brown, Good wives, p. 46Google Scholar

Perdue, Cherokee women, pp. 17Google Scholar

Susan Sleeper-Smith, Indian women and French men: rethinking cultural encounter in the Western Great Lakes, Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001, p. 30Google Scholar

Nancy Shoemaker, ‘The rise or fall of Iroquois women’, Journal of Women's History, 2, 3, 1991, pp. 3957CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Schroeder, Wood, and Haskett, Indian women, p. 259Google Scholar

32 Virginia M. Bouvier, Women and the conquest of California, 1542–1840: codes of silence, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2001, pp. 104106Google Scholar

Pekka Hämäläinen, The Comanche empire, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008, pp. 248Google Scholar

33 Juliana Barr, Peace came in the form of a woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas borderlands, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007, pp. 138139Google Scholar

Daniel Usner, Indians, settlers, and slaves in a frontier exchange economy: the Lower Mississippi Valley before 1783, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1992, pp. 171172Google Scholar

34 Sleeper-Smith, Indian women, ch. 3.

35 Perdue, Cherokee women, pp. 80–1.

36 Jane E. Mangan, Trading roles: gender, ethnicity, and the urban economy in colonial Potosí, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005Google Scholar

Karen B. Graubart, With our labor and sweat: indigenous women and the formation of colonial society in Peru, 1550 – 1700, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007Google Scholar

Usner, Indians, pp. 202Google Scholar

37 Matthew Restall, Seven myths of the Spanish conquest, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 3637Google Scholar

James Lockhart, Spanish Peru 1532–1560: a colonial society, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968, p. 240Google Scholar

38 Ruth MacKay, ‘Lazy, improvident people’: myth and reality in the writing of Spanish history, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006, pp. 74Google Scholar

Scott K. Taylor, Honor and violence in golden age Spain, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008Google Scholar

39 Inga Clendinnen, The Aztecs: an interpretation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 161162Google Scholar

Kimberly Gauderman, Women's lives in colonial Quito: gender, law, and economy in Spanish America, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003Google Scholar

40 Ann M. Little, Abraham in arms: war and gender in colonial New England, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007, pp. 14Google Scholar

Brown, Good wives, p. 57Google Scholar

Alexandra Shepard, Meanings of manhood in early modern England, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003Google Scholar

Kathleen P. Long, ed., High anxiety: masculinity in crisis in early modern France, Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2002, pp. 183209Google Scholar

41 Toby Green, The rise of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in Western Africa, 1300–1589, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 206Google Scholar

42 Patrick Manning, Slavery and African life: occidental, oriental, and African slave trades, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 132Google Scholar

43 Walter Hawthorne, Planting rice and harvesting slaves: transformations along the Guinea-Bissau coast, 1400–1900, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2003, p. 127Google Scholar

Miles Ogborn, Global lives: Britain and the world, 1550–1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 126129Google Scholar

44 Lillian Ashcraft-Easton, ‘“She voluntarily hath come”: a Gambian woman trader in colonial Georgia in the eighteenth century’, in Paul E. Lovejoy, ed., Identity in the shadow of slavery, London: Continuum, 2000, pp. 202221Google Scholar

45 Eltis, Rise of African slavery, pp. 102–104Google Scholar

Herbert S. Klein and Ben Vinson III, African slavery in Latin American and the Caribbean, 2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 124125Google Scholar

Jennifer L. Morgan, Laboring women: reproduction and gender in New World slavery, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, p. 60Google Scholar

Campbell, Miers, and Miller, Women and slavery, vol. 2, pp. 284–312Google Scholar

46 Campbell, Miers, and Miller, Women and slavery, vol. 1, pp. 259–279Google Scholar

Eltis, Rise of African slavery, pp. 100–101Google Scholar

Morgan, Laboring women, pp. 58–60Google Scholar

G. Ugo Nwokeji, ‘African conceptions of gender and the slave traffic’, William and Mary Quarterly, 53, 1, 2001, pp. 4768Google Scholar

Stuart B. Schwartz, Sugar plantations in the formation of Brazilian society: Bahia, 1550–1835, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 57Google Scholar

47 Susan Amussen, Caribbean exchanges: slavery and the transformation of English society, 1640–1700, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2007, p. 86Google Scholar

David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine, eds., More than chattel: black women and slavery in the Americas, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996, pp. 7996Google Scholar

Kathleen E. A. Monteith, ‘The labour regimen on Jamaican coffee plantations during slavery’, in Kathleen E. A. Monteith and Glen Richards, eds., Jamaica in slavery and freedom: history, heritage, and culture, Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press, 2002, pp. 259273Google Scholar

48 Richard S. Dunn, ‘Sugar production and slave women in Jamaica’, in Ira Berlin and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Cultivation and culture: labor and the shaping of slave life in the Americas, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1993, pp. 4972Google Scholar

Bernard Moitt, Women and slavery in the French Antilles, 1635–1848, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001, pp. 3852Google Scholar

María Elena Díaz, The virgin, the king, and the royal slaves of El Cobre: negotiating freedom in colonial Cuba, 1670–1780, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000, pp. 210212Google Scholar

Hilary McD. Beckles, Centering woman: gender discourses in Caribbean slave society, Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle, 1999, p. 8Google Scholar

49 Hilary McD. Beckles, Natural rebels: a social history of enslaved women in Barbados, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989Google Scholar

V. Shepherd, S. B. Brereton, and B. Bailey, eds., Engendering History: Caribbean women in historical perspective, New York: St Martin's Press, 1995, pp. 155175CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Barbara Bush, Slave women in Caribbean society, 1650–1838, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990, pp. 3345Google Scholar

Claire Robertson and Marsha Robinson, ‘Re-modeling slavery as if women mattered’, in Campbell, Miers, and Miller, Women and slavery, vol. 2, pp. 253–283Google Scholar

50 Usner, Indians, pp. 202Google Scholar

Gad Heumann and James Walvin, eds., The slavery reader, New York: Routledge, 2003, pp. 521544Google Scholar

Beckles, Centering woman, pp. 140155Google Scholar

Kathleen Higgins, ‘Licentious liberty’ in a Brazilian gold-mining region: slavery, gender, and social control in eighteenth-century Sabará, Minas Gerais, University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 1999, pp. 197199Google Scholar

Bush, Slave women, pp. 46–50Google Scholar

51 Maria Odila Leite da Silva Dias, Power and everyday life: the lives of working women in nineteenth-century Brazil, trans. Ann Frost, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995, pp. 7879Google Scholar

Ira Berlin, Many thousands gone: the first two centuries of slavery in North America, Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 1998, pp. 157158Google Scholar

52 Stuart B. Schwartz, ‘The manumission of slaves in colonial Brazil: Bahia, 1684–1745’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 55, 4, 1974, pp. 603635Google Scholar

Júnia Ferreira Furtado, Chica da Silva: a Brazilian slave of the eighteenth century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009Google Scholar

53 Moitt, Women and slavery, pp. 4950Google Scholar

54 Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian country: the changing face of captivity in early America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 132Google Scholar

Hämäläinen, Comanche empire, pp. 250Google Scholar

Perdue, Cherokee women, p. 126Google Scholar

55 Peter H. Wood, ‘Black labor – white rice’, in Heumann and Walvin, Slavery reader, pp. 224244Google Scholar

Morgan, Laboring women, pp. 156157Google Scholar

David Eltis, Philip Morgan, and David Richardson, ‘Agency and diaspora in Atlantic history: reassessing the African contribution to rice cultivation in the Americas’, American Historical Review, 112, 5, 2007, pp. 13291358CrossRefGoogle Scholar

56 Heumann and Walvin, Slavery reader, pp. 569593Google Scholar

57 Cited in Brown, Good wives, p. 85.

58 Lois Green Carr and Lorena Walsh, ‘The planter's wife: the experience of women in seventeenth-century Maryland’, William and Mary Quarterly, 34, 4, 1977, p. 547Google Scholar

Ellen Hartigan-O'Connor, The ties that buy: women and commerce in revolutionary America, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009Google Scholar

Sophie White, ‘“A baser commerce”: retailing, class, and gender in French colonial New Orleans’, William and Mary Quarterly, 63, 3, 2006, pp. 517550Google Scholar

Karin Wulf, Not all wives: women of colonial Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000Google Scholar

Silvia Arrom, The women of Mexico City, 1797–1857, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985Google Scholar

59 James R. Farr, Authority and sexuality in early modern Burgundy, 1550–1730, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994Google Scholar

Ian Archer, The pursuit of stability: social relations in Elizabethan London, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 211215Google Scholar

60 Allyson M. Poska, ‘Elusive virtue: rethinking the role of female chastity in early modern Spain’, Journal of Early Modern History, 8, 1–2, 2004, pp. 135146CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Richard Adair, Courtship, illegitimacy and marriage in early modern England, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996Google Scholar

Norberta Amorim, Guimarães de 1580 a 1819: estudo demográfico, Lisbon: Instituto Nacional de Investigação Científica, 1987Google Scholar

Cissie Fairchilds, ‘Female sexual attitudes and the rise of illegitimacy: a case study’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 8, 4, 1978, pp. 627667CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Grace Coolidge, ‘“A vile and abject woman”: noble mistresses, legal power, and the family in early modern Spain’, Journal of Family History, 32, 3, 2007, pp. 195214CrossRefGoogle Scholar

61 Stephanie Wood, ‘Sexual violation in the conquest of the Americas’, in Merrill D. Smith, ed., Sex and sexuality in early America, New York: New York University Press, 1998, pp. 934Google Scholar

Sharon Block, Rape and sexual power in early America, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2006, pp. 8283Google Scholar

Richard C. Trexler, Sex and conquest: gendered violence, political order, and the European conquest of the Americas, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995Google Scholar

62 John A. Lynn II, Women, armies, and warfare in early modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 153159Google Scholar

63 Richard Godbeer, Sexual revolution in early America, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002, p. 166Google Scholar

Smith, Sex and sexuality, pp. 3554Google Scholar

Fur, A nation of women, pp. 104105Google Scholar

64 Wood, ‘Sexual violation’, pp. 11–12.

65 Montrose, ‘Work of gender’, pp. 18–20Google Scholar

Block, Rape and sexual power, p. 82–83Google Scholar

Godbeer, Sexual revolution, p. 181Google Scholar

Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 8990Google Scholar

66 Wayne E. Lee, ‘Peace chiefs and blood revenge: patterns of restraint in Native American warfare, 1500–1800’, Journal of Military History, 71, 3, 2007, p. 722Google Scholar

Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 8889Google Scholar

67 Block, Rape and sexual power, pp. 210Google Scholar

Godbeer, Sexual revolution, pp. 168169Google Scholar

68 Mary Rowlandson, A true history of the captivity and restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, London, 1682, p. 32Google Scholar

Godbeer, Sexual revolution, p. 168Google Scholar

69 Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 143145Google Scholar

James F. Brooks, Captives and cousins: slavery, kinship, and community in the Southwest Borderlands, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002, pp. 99103Google Scholar

Linda Colley, Captives: Britain, empire and the world, 1600–1850, New York: Pantheon, 2002, pp. 145Google Scholar

David J. Weber, Bárbaros: Spaniards and their savages in the age of enlightenment, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 227228Google Scholar

Juliana Barr, ‘From captives to slaves: commodifying Indian women in the Borderlands’, Journal of American History, 92, 1, 2005, pp. 223Google Scholar

Hämäläinen, Comanche empire, p. 45Google Scholar

70 Kathleen Duval, The native ground: Indians and colonists in the heart of the continent, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006, pp. 84Google Scholar

Richard Godbeer, ‘Eroticizing the middle ground: Anglo-Indian relations along the eighteenth-century frontier’, in Martha Hodes, ed., Sex, love, race: crossing boundaries in North American history, New York: New York University Press, 1999, p. 1032Google Scholar

Jennifer M. Spear, ‘Colonial intimacies: legislating sex in French Louisiana’, William and Mary Quarterly, 60, l, 2003, p. 79Google Scholar

71 Ramón A. Gutiérrez, When Jesus came, the corn mothers went away: marriage, sexuality, and power in New Mexico, 1500–1846, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991, p. 123Google Scholar

72 Brown, Good wives, p. 67Google Scholar

73 Karen Ordahl Kupperman, The Jamestown project, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 228Google Scholar

74 Godbeer, Sexual revolution, p. 177Google Scholar

75 Pedro Carrasco, ‘Indian–Spanish marriages in the first century of the colony’, in Schroeder, Wood and Haskett, Indian women, pp. 87103Google Scholar

76 Sleeper-Smith, Indian women, p. 19Google Scholar

Jennifer M. Spear, Race, sex, and social order in early New Orleans, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009, p. 21Google Scholar

77 Spear, Race, p. 2223Google Scholar

Sleeper -Smith, Indian women, pp. 7677Google Scholar

78 Clara Sue Kidwell, ‘Indian women as cultural mediators’, Ethnohistory, 39, 2, 1992, pp. 97107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Alida Metcalf, Go-betweens and the colonization of Brazil, 1500–1600, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2005Google Scholar

79 Barr, Peace, pp. 12Google Scholar

Brown, Good wives, pp. 5758Google Scholar

Shannon Miller, Invested with meaning: the Raleigh circle in the New World, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998, pp. 146Google Scholar

Ann Marie Plane, Colonial intimacies: Indian marriage in early New England, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000, p. 50Google Scholar

Kirsten Fischer, Suspect relations: sex, race, and resistance in colonial North Carolina, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002, p. 67Google Scholar

Peter Sigal, From moon goddesses to virgins: the colonization of Yucatecan Maya sexual desire, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2000, p. 44Google Scholar

James Krippner-Martínez, Rereading the conquest: power, politics, and the history of early colonial Michoacán, Mexico, 1521–1565, University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2001, pp. 6367Google Scholar

Nathaniel Sheidley, ‘Hunting and the politics of masculinity in Cherokee treaty-making, 1763–75’, in Martin Daunton and Rick Halpern, eds., Empire and others: British encounters with indigenous peoples, 1600–1850, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999, pp. 167185Google Scholar

80 Federico Garza Carvajal, Butterflies will burn: prosecuting sodomites in early modern Spain and Mexico, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003, pp. 136Google Scholar

81 Quoted in Garza Carvajal, Butterflies will burn, p. 154.

82 Fischer, Suspect relations, p. 67Google Scholar

83 Trexler, Sex and conquest, p. 78Google Scholar

Sigal, From moon goddess, p. 45Google Scholar

Cecelia F. Klein, ‘Fighting with femininity: gender and war in Aztec Mexico’, in Richard C. Trexler, ed., Gender rhetorics: postures of dominance and submission in history, Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1994, pp. 107146Google Scholar

Fur, A nation of women, p. 166Google Scholar

Nancy Shoemaker, ‘An alliance between men: gender metaphors in eighteenth-century American Indian diplomacy east of the Mississippi’, Ethnohistory, 46, 1999, pp. 239264Google Scholar

84 Little, Abraham in arms, p.13Google Scholar

Barr, Peace, p. 171Google Scholar

Spear, Race, sex, and social order, p. 22Google Scholar

Snyder, Slavery in Indian country, p. 145Google Scholar

85 Barr, Peace, p. 147Google Scholar

86 Plane, Colonial intimacies, pp. 41–44Google Scholar

Leslie Tuttle, Conceiving the Old Regime: pronatalism and the politics of reproduction in early modern France, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 84Google Scholar

87 Hämäläinen, Comanche empire, pp. 246Google Scholar

88 John K. Chance, Marriage alliances among colonial Mixtec elites: the Villagómez caciques of Acatlan-Petlalcingo’, Ethnohistory, 56, 2009, pp. 91–123Google Scholar

89 Kathryn Burns, Colonial habits: convents and the spiritual economy of Cuzco, Peru, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999Google Scholar

Jane E. Mangan, ‘Indigenous women as mothers in conquest-era Peru’, in Sarah E. Owens and Jane E. Mangan, eds., Women of the Iberian Atlantic, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, forthcoming, 2012Google Scholar

90 Richard Boyer, Lives of the bigamists: marriage, family and community in colonial Mexico, Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1995Google Scholar

91 Metcalf, Go-betweens, pp. 85, 96.

92 Sleeper-Smith, Indian women, pp. 40Google Scholar

Saliha Belmessous, ‘Assimilation and racialism in seventeenth and eighteenth-century French colonial policy’, American Historical Review, 110, 2, 2005, pp. 322349CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Gilles Havard, Empire et métissage: Indiens et Français dans le Pays d'an Haut 1660–1715, Sillery: Septentrion, 2003, pp. 647Google Scholar

93 Plane, Colonial intimacies, pp. 3738Google Scholar

Fischer, Suspect relations, pp. 8587Google Scholar

94 Godbeer, Sexual revolution, p. 159Google Scholar

Jennifer S. H. Brown, Strangers in blood: fur trade company families in Indian Country, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980Google Scholar

95 Theda Perdue, ‘Race and culture: writing the ethnohistory of the early South’, Ethnohistory, 51, 4, 2004, p. 706Google Scholar

Fur, A nation of women, pp. 81Google Scholar

96 Perdue, ‘Race and culture’, p. 706Google Scholar

97 Barr, ‘From captives to slaves’, p. 36Google Scholar

98 Richard Konetzke, ‘La emigración de mujeres españolas a America durante la época colonial’, Revista Internacional de Sociología, 3, 1945, p. 124Google Scholar

Ida Altman, Emigrants and society: Extremadura and America in the sixteenth century, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989, pp. 178179Google Scholar

Barr, Peace, p. 93Google Scholar

99 Brown, Good wives, pp. 80Google Scholar

Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Providence Island, 1630–1641, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 158Google Scholar

Alison Games, Migration and the origins of the English Atlantic world, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 4647Google Scholar

Eltis, Rise of African slavery, p. 104Google Scholar

Kupperman, Jamestown project, pp. 287288Google Scholar

100 Else Hambleton, Daughters of Eve: pregnant brides and unwed mothers in seventeenth-century Massachusetts, New York: Routledge, 2004Google Scholar

Daniel Scott Smith and Michael Hindus, ‘Premarital pregnancy in America, 1640–1971: an overview and interpretation’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 5, 1975, pp. 537570Google Scholar

James Horn, Adapting to a New World: English society in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994, pp. 204216Google Scholar

Natalie A. Zacek, Settler society in the English Leeward Islands, 1670–1776, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 174176Google Scholar

101 María Emma Mannarelli, Pecados públicos: la ilegitimidad en Lima, siglo XVII, Lima: Ediciones Flora Tristán, 1994Google Scholar

Carlos Mayo, ‘¿Amistades ilícitas? Las relaciones extramatrimoniales en la campaña bonaerense, 1750–1810’, Cuadernos de Historia Regional (Buenos Aires), 1/2, 1985, pp. 39Google Scholar

Thomas Calvo, ‘Concubinato y mestizaje en el medio urbano: el caso de Guadalajara en el siglo XVII’, Revista de Indias, 44, 1984, pp. 203212Google Scholar

Ann Twinam, Public lives, private secrets: gender, honor, sexuality, and illegitimacy in colonial Spanish America, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999Google Scholar

102 Pete Sigal, ed., Infamous desire: male homosexuality in colonial Latin America, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003Google Scholar

Ligia Bellini, A coisa obscura: mulher, sodomia, e Inquisição no Brasil colonial, São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1987Google Scholar

Ronaldo Vainfas, Trópico dos pecados: moral, sexualidade e Inquisição no Brasil, Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 1997Google Scholar

103 Martha Few, Women who live evil lives: gender, religion, and the politics of power in colonial Guatemala, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002Google Scholar

Laura de Mello e Souza and Diane Grosklaus Whitty, The devil and the land of the holy cross: witchcraft, slavery, and popular religion in colonial Brazil, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003Google Scholar

María Emma Mannarelli, Hechiceras, beatas y expósitas: mujeres y poder inquisitorial en Lima, Lima: Ediciones del Congreso del Perú, 1999Google Scholar

Carol F. Karlsen, The devil in the shape of a woman: witchcraft in colonial New England, New York: WW Norton, 1987Google Scholar

Elizabeth Reis, Damned women: sinners and witches in puritan New England, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997Google Scholar

104 Mark E. Kann, A republic of men: the American founders, gendered language, and patriarchal politics, New York: New York University Press, 1998Google Scholar

Susan E. Klepp, Revolutionary conceptions: women, fertility, and family limitation in America, 1760–1820, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2009, pp. 236238Google Scholar

105 Guiomar Dueñas Vargas, Los hijos del pecado: ilegitimidad y vida familiar en la Santafé de Bogotá colonial, Bogotá: Editorial Universidad Nacional, 1997Google Scholar

Arrom, Women of Mexico City, pp. 130140Google Scholar

Elizabeth Kuznesof, ‘The role of the female-headed household in Brazilian modernization: São Paolo, 1765–1836’, Journal of Social History, 13, 4, 1980, pp. 589613CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Alida Metcalf and Caroline B. Brettell, ‘Family customs in Portugal and Brazil: transatlantic parallels’, Continuity and Change, 8, 3, 1993, pp. 124Google Scholar

Carole Shammas, ‘The female social structure of Philadelphia in 1775’, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 107, 1, 1983, pp. 6983Google Scholar

Alfred F. Young, ‘Women of Boston: “persons of consequence” in the making of the American revolution, 1765–1776’, in Harriet B. Applewhite and Darline G. Levy, eds., Women and politics in the age of the democratic revolution, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1990, p. 184Google Scholar

106 John Thornton, ‘Sexual demography: the impact of the slave trade on family structure’, in Claire C. Robertson and Martin A. Klein, eds., Women and slavery in Africa, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983, pp. 3948Google Scholar

Thomas Benjamin, The Atlantic world: Europeans, Africans, Indians and their shared history, 1400–1900, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 338339Google Scholar

Patrick Manning, ‘The slave trade and the demographic evolution of Africa’, in Doudou Diène, ed., From chains to bonds: the slave trade revisited, New York: Berghahn Books, 2001, p. 110Google Scholar

107 Philip Havik, ‘Mary and misogyny revisited: gendering the Afro-Atlantic connection’, in Philip J. Havik and Malyn Newitt, eds., Creole societies in the Portuguese colonial empire, Bristol: University of Bristol, 2007, pp. 4164Google Scholar

108 Harvey M. Feinberg, Africans and Europeans in West Africa: Dutchmen and Elminians on the Gold Coast during the eighteenth century, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society new series, 79, 7, 1989, pp. 89–90.

109 Robin Law and Kristin Mann, ‘West Africa in the Atlantic community: the case of the Slave Coast’, in Heumann and Walvin, Slavery reader, pp. 739763Google Scholar

Edna G. Bay, Wives of the leopard: gender, politics, and culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1998Google Scholar

110 Debra Blumenthal, Enemies and familiars: slavery and mastery in fifteenth-century Valencia, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010, p. 87Google Scholar

Karen Vieira Powers, Women in the crucible of conquest: the gendered genesis of Spanish-American society, 1500–1600, Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2005, p. 97Google Scholar

John Gabriel Stedman, Stedman's Surinam: life in an eighteenth-century slave society, ed. Richard Price and Sally Price, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992Google Scholar

Fischer, Suspect relations, pp. 161166Google Scholar

111 Trevor Burnard, Mastery, tyranny, and desire: Thomas Thistlewood and his slaves in the Anglo Jamaican world, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004, pp. 156Google Scholar

Beckles, Centering Woman, pp. 3858Google Scholar

112 Brown, Good wives, pp. 332333Google Scholar

Godbeer, Sexual revolution, pp. 212219Google Scholar

113 Burnard, Mastery, pp. 228240Google Scholar

Beckles, Centering woman, pp. 3858Google Scholar

Higgins, ‘Licentious liberty’, pp. 112118Google Scholar

Dunn, ‘Sugar production’, pp. 7172Google Scholar

Spear, Race, sex, and social order, pp. 6465Google Scholar

Kathleen DuVal, ‘Indian intermarriage and métissage in colonial Louisiana’, William and Mary Quarterly, 65, 2, 2008, pp. 267304Google Scholar

114 Christine Hünefeldt, Paying the price of freedom: family and labor among Lima's slaves, 1800–1854, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994, p. 21Google Scholar

Keila Grinberg, ‘Manumission, gender, and the law in nineteenth-century Brazil’, in Rosemary Brana-Shute and Randy J. Sparks, eds., Paths to freedom: manumission in the Atlantic world, Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2009, pp. 219234Google Scholar

115 Sue Peabody, ‘“A dangerous zeal”: Catholic missions to slaves in the French Antilles, 1635–1800’, French Historical Studies, 25, 1, 2002, p. 71Google Scholar

116 James H. Sweet, Recreating Africa: culture, kinship, and religion in the African–Portuguese world, 1441–1770, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003, pp. 3839Google Scholar

117 Burnard, Mastery, pp. 203204Google Scholar

118 Amussen, Caribbean exchanges, p. 62Google Scholar

Sweet, Recreating Africa, p. 39Google Scholar

119 Moitt, Women and slavery, pp. 2932Google Scholar

120 Higgins, ‘Licentious liberty’, pp. 7576Google Scholar

121 Stanley Engerman and B.W. Higman, ‘The demographic structure of the Caribbean slave societies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries’, in Franklin W. Knight, ed., The general history of the Caribbean, vol. 3: The slave societies of the Caribbean, London: UNESCO, 1997, pp. 80–5.

122 Sweet, Recreating Africa, p. 39Google Scholar

123 Moitt, Women and slavery, p. 81Google Scholar

124 Ibid., ch. 5 passim, esp. pp. 81, 85, 87; Burnard, Mastery, pp. 186–90, 203–4.

125 Thornton, Africa and Africans, pp. 172173Google Scholar

Katia M. De Queirós Mattoso, To be a slave in Brazil, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1979, pp. 110111Google Scholar

Díaz, Virgin, pp. 3240Google Scholar

Kenneth Morgan, ‘Slave women and reproduction in Jamaica, c. 1776–1834’, in Campbell, Miers, and Miller, Women and slavery, vol. 2, pp. 2753Google Scholar

Berlin, Many thousands gone, pp. 126127Google Scholar

Dunn, ‘Sugar production’, p. 57Google Scholar

Moitt, Women and slavery, pp. 8999Google Scholar

Miller, ‘Domiciled and dominated’, pp. 304306Google Scholar

126 Brown, Good wives, p. 243Google Scholar

127 Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Africans in colonial Louisiana: the development of Afro-creole culture in the eighteenth century, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1992, p. 115Google Scholar

128 Matthew Restall, ed., African–Native relations in colonial Latin America, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005, pp. 5380Google Scholar

7
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Restoring Miranda: gender and the limits of European patriarchy in the early modern Atlantic world*
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Restoring Miranda: gender and the limits of European patriarchy in the early modern Atlantic world*
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Restoring Miranda: gender and the limits of European patriarchy in the early modern Atlantic world*
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *