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Globalizing St George: English associations in the Anglo-world to the 1930s*

  • Tanja Bueltmann (a1) and Donald M. MacRaild (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

While English nationalism has recently become a subject of significant scholarly consideration, relatively little detailed research has been conducted on the emigrant and imperial contexts, or on the importance of Englishness within a global British identity. This article demonstrates how the importance of a global English identity can be illuminated through a close reading of ethnic associational culture. Examining organizations such as the St George's societies and the Sons of England, the article discusses the evolving character of English identity across North America, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Antipodes. Beginning in the eighteenth century, when English institutions echoed other ethnic organizations by providing sociability and charity to fellow nationals, the article goes on to map the growth of English associationalism within the context of mass migration. It then shows how nationalist imperialism – a broad-based English defence of empire against internal and external threats – gave these associations new meaning in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The article also explores how competitive ethnicity prompted English immigrants to form such societies and how both Irish Catholic hostility in America and Canada and Boer opposition in South Africa challenged the English to assert a more robust ethnic identity. English associationalism evinced coherence over time and space, and the article shows how the English tapped global reservoirs of strength to form ethnic associations that echoed their Irish and Scottish equivalents by undertaking the same sociable and mutual aspects, and lauded their ethnicity in similar fashion.

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1 A sketch of how ‘the diamond anthem’ was sung around the world through the colonies of the empire on the 20th June 1897. Being an extract from the annual report of the supreme grand president of the Sons of England, given at St Catherine’s, Canada, 8th March 1898, Toronto: Robinson-Arbuthnot Press, 1898, p. 1.

2 Daily Mail and Empire (Toronto), 15 April 1897.

3 A sketch, p. 1.

4 National Library of Australia, Diamond jubilee of her majesty Queen Victoria, Sunday, 20th June, 1897, Victoria, British Columbia.

5 Evening Telegram (St John’s, Newfoundland), 4 May 1897.

6 West Coast Times (Hokitika), 21 June 1897; Otago Witness (Dunedin), 24 June 1897; Clutha Leader (Balclutha), 25 June 1897; Tuapeka Times (Lawrence), 23 June 1897; Mataura Ensign (Gore), 24 June 1897; Star (Christchurch), 25 June 1897.

7 The Mercury (Hobart), 21 June 1897; The Argus (Melbourne), 21 June 1897.

8 West Australian (Perth), 1, 21 June 1897 (quotation from the latter); Western Mail (Perth), 4 June 1897.

9 A sketch, pp. 2–3.

10 Milwaukee Sentinel, 20 June 1897; Galveston Daily News, 23 June 1897.

11 Weekly News and Courier (Charleston), 30 June 1897.

12 For instance, Fort Worth Register, 14 May 1897.

13 Daily Mail and Empire, 17 June 1897.

14 See Ward Paul, Britishness since 1870, London: Routledge, 2004, ch. 1.

15 Orr Clarissa Campbell, ‘The feminization of the monarchy, 1780–1910: royal masculinity and female empowerment’, in Olechnowicz Andrzej, ed., The monarchy and the British nation, 1780 to the present, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 92.

16 Cannadine David, Ornamentalism: how the British saw their empire, London: Allen Lane, 2001.

17 Trollope Joanna, Britannia's daughters: women of the British empire, London: Random House, 1983; Bush Julia, Edwardian ladies and imperial power, London: Leicester University Press, 2000; Riedi Eliza, ‘Women, gender, and the promotion of empire: the Victoria League, 1901–1914’, Historical Journal, 45, 3, 2002, pp. 569–99; Pickles Katie, ‘A link in “the great chain of friendship”: the Victoria League in New Zealand’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 33, 1, 2005, pp. 29–50; eadem, Female imperialism and national identity: Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002; van Heyningen E. and Merrett P., ‘“The healing touch”: The Guild of Loyal Women of South Africa, 1900–1912’, South African Historical Journal, 47, November 2002, pp. 24–50.

18 Digitized newspapers include: the World Newspaper Archive (US, South Asia, Africa); Singapore Pages; Papers Past (New Zealand); Trove Newspaper Archive (Australia); Newspaperarchive.com (Canada, US); the Library of Congress’ Chronicling America; and Google Newspaper Archive. Search terms included: ‘George's Society’; ‘Society of St George’; ‘George's Day’; and ‘Queen's Jubilee’. The initial searches yielded more than five thousand hits. Results were then filtered by relevance and, where appropriate, additional searches were carried out when material pointed to further developments and sources, for instance in relation to county societies in New Zealand. More than a thousand press reports were then scrutinized in detail for this study to establish the activities and geographic trajectories of English associations throughout the Anglo-world over time.

19 Carey Hilary, God's empire: religion and colonialism in the British world, c.1801–1908, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010; Hardwick Joe, ‘An English institution? The Church of England in the colonies in the first half of the nineteenth century’, in Bueltmann T., Gleeson D., and MacRaild D. M., eds., Locating the hidden diaspora, 1500–2010, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, forthcoming.

20 Although see Gillian Leitch, ‘The importance of being English: English ethnic culture in Montreal, c.1800–1864’, in Bueltmann, Gleeson and MacRaild, Hidden diaspora.

21 Although ethno-symbolism was not normally associated with Western nationalisms, Anthony D. Smith observes it in English behaviour: Ethno-symbolism and nationalism: a cultural approach, London: Routledge, 2009, pp. 67–69.

22 Kenny Kevin, ed., Ireland and the British Empire, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006; O’Leary Patrick, Servants of empire: the Irish in the Punjab, 1881–1921, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011.

23 Seeley J. R., The expansion of England, Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 1971 (first published 1883), p. 13.

24 Young Robert J. C., The idea of English ethnicity, New York: Blackwell, 2008, pp. 1–2. Declan Kiberd ascribes similar powers to Irish America: Inventing Ireland: the literature of the modern nation, London: Jonathan Cape, 1995.

25 Hastings Adrian, The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion and nationalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, which offers a direct challenge to Hobsbawm E. J., Nations and nationalism since 1780: programme, myth and reality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

26 The literature is too extensive to list here, but see Kumar Krishan, The making of English national identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 1–17, 39–59, and the sources he cites. Newman Gerald, The rise of English nationalism: a cultural history, 1740–1830, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987, and Colley Linda, Britons: forging the nation, 1707–1837, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992, are particularly important, sustained treatments of pre-modern origins.

27 Smith, Ethno-symbolism, pp. 10–11, 44–5.

28 Colley, Britons.

29 Hastings, Construction, esp. pp. 61–5.

30 Armitage David, The ideological origins of the British Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. See also Pocock J. G. A., ‘“British history”: a plea for a new subject’, Journal of Modern History, 47, 3, 1982, pp. 601–28.

31 Kumar, English national identity, pp. 30–2.

32 Ibid., pp. 35–8.

33 See, for example, Abraham Lewis, Gloria Britan[n]ica and the universality of Anglo-Saxonism; a paper read at the convention of the North American St George's Union, at Toronto, August 30, 1883, Washington, DC: no publisher, 1883, esp. pp. 19–20.

34 Benjamin Charles F., The future relations of the English-speaking communities; an essay read before the eleventh convention of the North American St George's Union at Chicago, August 20, 1884, Washington, DC: no publisher, 1884, p. 1.

35 Clark Peter, Clubs and societies, 1580–1800: the origins of an associational world, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 3, 388–429.

36 Aligning with Habermas Jürgen, The transformation of the public sphere, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

37 Condor S., ‘Unimagined community? Some psychological issues concerning English national identity’, in Breakwell G. M. and Lyons E., eds., Changing European identities: social psychological analysis of social change, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann, 1996; Anderson Benedict, Imagined communities: reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism, London: Verso, 1983.

38 Newspapers, and later radio and TV, maintained the webs. See Potter Simon, News and the British world, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003; Webster Wendy, Englishness and empire, 1939–1965, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

39 Paxman Jeremy, The English, London: Penguin, 1998; Colls Robert, The identity of England, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002; Kumar, English national identity.

40 Colls, Identity, does not explore Englishness outside England; Paxman, English, concentrates on England and the ‘Celtic Fringe’.

41 Harper Marjory and Constantine Stephen, Migration and empire, OHBE companion series, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 14.

42 Cohen Robin, Global diasporas, 2nd edn, London: Routledge, 2008.

43 Fischer David Hackett, Albion's seed: four British folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 4–5.

44 Berthoff Rowland, British immigrants in industrial America, 1750–1922, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.

45 Erickson Charlotte, Invisible immigrants: the adaptation of English and Scottish immigrants in nineteenth-century America, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990; eadem, ‘English’, in Thernstrom S., Orlov A., and Handlin O., eds., Harvard encyclopaedia of American ethnic groups, 2nd edn, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1980, p. 333.

46 For example, Doust Janet, ‘Two English immigrant families in Australia in the nineteenth century’, History of the Family, 13, 2008, pp. 2–25.

47 Hammerton James and Thomson Alistair, ‘Ten pound poms’: Australia's invisible migrants, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005, pp. 11–15; Jupp James, The English in Australia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

48 Belich James, Making peoples, Auckland: Penguin, 1996; idem, Paradise reforged, Honololu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001. See also Arnold Rollo, The farthest promised land, Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1981; idem, New Zealand's burning, Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1994; idem, Settler Kaponga, 1881–1914, Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1997.

49 Clark, Clubs and societies, esp. ch. 11.

50 Habermas, Public sphere.

51 Toronto (1834), Quebec (1836), and Ottawa (1844): Charters and bye-laws of the St George's Society of Toronto… 1862, Toronto: no publisher, 1863, p. 4; Quebec St George's Society, officers and members, with the reports for 1846, Quebec: J. C. Fisher, 1846, front cover; for Ottawa, Gard Anson A., The hub and the spokes: or the capital and its environs, Ottawa: Emerson Press, 1904, p. 47.

52 The Scots Charitable Society of Boston was founded in either 1657 (Berthoff, British immigrants, p. 165) or 1684 (The Massachusetts register and United States Calendar, for the year of our lord 1801 …, Boston, MA: T. J. Fleet, 1800, p. 40; M’Culloch John, A concise history of the United States, from the discovery of America till 1795 …, Philadelphia, PA: no publisher, 1795, p. 195).

53 The act of incorporation and bye-laws of the St George's Society of Montreal, founded by Englishmen in the year 1834, for the purpose of relieving their brethren in distress, Montreal: Montreal Printing & Publishing Company, 1867, pp. 3 and 8.

54 Maryland Historical Society, MS 1881, Baltimore St George's Society Records, Minute Book, 6 December 1866; Constitution, by-laws and standing rules and orders of the British Columbia St George's Society, Victoria: W. A. Calhoun, 1886, p. 2.

55 Rules and constitution of the Society of the Sons of St George, Philadelphia, PA: Humphrey’s, 1772, p. 6. See also Historical Society of Pennsylvania, (PHi)1733, minutes of the founding meeting, held on St George's Day 1772.

56 Waller Robert, A sketch of the origin, progress and work of the St George's Society, A.D. 1786–1886, New York: no publisher, 1887, p. 3.

57 Berthoff, British immigrants, p. 165.

58 The role of these societies was recognized by the British government: see, for example, 1872 [C.617] Reports on the present state of Her Majesty's colonial possessions. Transmitted with the blue books for the year 1870. Part III. North American colonies; African settlements and St. Helena; Australian colonies and New Zealand; and the Mediterranean possessions, &c., p. 50; 1892 [C.6795-XI] Royal Commission on Labour. Foreign reports. Volume II. The colonies and the Indian empire. With an appendix on the migration of labour, p. 89; 1906 [Cd. 2979] Departmental Committee on Agricultural Settlements in British Colonies: minutes of evidence taken before the Departmental Committee appointed to consider Mr. Rider Haggard's report on agricultural settlements in British colonies, with appendices, analysis, and index, II, 208, 5490.

59 New York Public Library, *ZAN-8373, St George's Society of New York annual report for 1874, p. 8.

60 For instance in Ottawa Citizen, 16 December 1907.

61 Quoted in Chilton Lisa, ‘Managing migrants: Toronto, 1820–1880’, Canadian Historical Review, 92, 2, 2011, p. 248.

62 Jamestown Journal (New York), 30 December 1859.

63 Letter to the Manchester Guardian reprinted and commented on in Freeman's Journal, 18 August 1874.

64 1878–79 (C. 2372), Eighth annual report of the Local Government Board, pp. 152–3.

65 Tanja Bueltmann, ‘Ethnizität und organisierte Geselligkeit: das Assoziationswesen deutscher Migranten in Neuseeland im mittleren und späten 19. Jahrhundert’, Historische Zeitschrift, forthcoming; see also eadem, Scottish ethnicity and the making of New Zealand society, 1850 to 1930, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011.

66 Wisconsin Patriot (Madison), 23 August 1856; Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, 12 March and 3 April 1858.

67 Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, 26 April 1858.

68 Chicago Tribune, 2 May 1861, 26 April 1864. The fourth AGM was reported in the same newspaper on 5 and 12 April 1864. See also the editions of 16, 22, 27, 28, and 31 March 1864.

69 Pioneer (Allahabad), 17 May 1894, 13 June 1900.

70 Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago), 22 April 1895.

71 Its twentieth anniversary was remarked upon in 1875: North American and United States Gazette (Philadelphia), 15 December 1875; see also North American (Boston), 15 December 1885.

72 Los Angeles Times, 6 April 1887, 1 January 1891, 25 April 1895, 25 April 1904.

73 Los Angeles Times, 24 April 1885.

74 Evening Bulletin (San Francisco), 14 November 1885.

75 Rocky Mountains News (Boulder), 2 January 1887.

76 E.g. Daily Picayune (New Orleans), 11 May 1891; Knoxville Journal, 18 February 1891.

77 Los Angeles Times, 25 April 1904.

78 Oakland Tribune, 1 February 1924.

79 Glenbow Museum Archive, Calgary, M-1659, Sons of England Benefit Society, Calgary lodge fonds, 1 August 1890; later lodges include Calgary Lodge No. 240, set up in 1904, and the Golden West Lodge No. 319, established in 1911.

80 Calgary Weekly Herald, 6 August 1890.

81 Manitoba Free Press, 2 March and 7 April 1892.

82 See also Glenbow Museum Archive, Calgary, M 4030 D920.K52, George Clift King fonds, interview with his son Edward King in 1959.

83 The Argus, 19 March 1847, though Mr Booth, an early English settler declared that St George's Day was marked early as ‘1842 or thereabouts’: The Herald (Melbourne), 2 July 1897.

84 South Australian Register (Adelaide), 18 January 1845; Courier (Hobart), 23 April and 16 May 1851.

85 Thus mirroring the Scots: Bueltmann, Scottish ethnicity, p. 66.

86 Sydney Morning Herald, 9 December 1893; West Australian, 24 June 1898, 28 April 1900; Brisbane Courier, 25 October 1904, 1 February 1913; Camperdown Chronicle, 1 May 1913.

87 Fairburn Miles, The ideal society and its enemies: foundations of modern New Zealand society, 1850–1900, Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1989. For an opposing view, see Bueltmann, Scottish ethnicity.

88 Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 7 May 1859; Daily Southern Cross (Auckland), 17 April 1860, 23 April 1861.

89 Daily Southern Cross, 28 February 1860.

90 Wellington Independent, 22 April 1872; The Colonist (Nelson), 19 April 1887; Poverty Bay Herald (Gisborne), 14 April 1896.

91 Hawaiian Gazette, 29 April 1868.

92 Madras Mail, 14 October 1869.

93 Ceylon Observer (Colombo), 25 April 1901.

94 Madras Mail, 20 April 1888; Rhodesia Herald (Salisbury), 24 April 1890; Pioneer, 13 June 1900.

95 E.g. Central African Times (Blantyre), 29 April 1905; Bulawayo Chronicle, 2 May 1903. See ‘St George's Day (23 April)’, Madras Mail, 23 April 1885.

96 Lambert John, ‘Maintaining a British way of life: English-speaking South Africa's patriotic, cultural and charitable associations’, Historia, 54, 2, 2009, pp. 55–76.

97 Lambert John, ‘South African British? Or Dominion South Africans? The evolution of an identity in the 1910s and 1920s’, South African Historical Journal, 43, 2000, p. 206; idem, ‘“An unknown people”: reconstructing British South African identity’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 37, 4, 2009, pp. 599–617.

98 Magee G. B. and Stewart A. S., Empire and globalisation: networks of people, goods and capital in the British world, c.1850–1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 87–8.

99 For example, Glenbow Museum Archive, Calgary, NA-644-28, ‘Annual coyote hunt of the Sons of England Benevolent Society, Calgary, Alberta’.

100 Toronto World, 21 August 1918; Ottawa Citizen, 13 April 1923.

101 Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 August 1884.

102 The Argus, 11 August 1857.

103 New York Times, 22 August 1888; Birmingham Daily Post, 27 February and 12 March 1888.

104 Historical Society of Pennsylvania, (PHi)1733, Letters from the North America St George's Union to the Society of the Sons of St George, Philadelphia, Minute book vol. 6, 1888; North American, 21 August 1880; Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 August 1884; Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco), 18 April 1877.

105 South Carolina Historical Society, St George's Society Records, 1124.00, North America St George's Union, Eleventh Annual Convention information leaflet.

106 Toronto Daily Mail, 14 March 1894; Ottawa Citizen, 10 August 1927.

107 Ceylon Observer, 10 April 1902.

108 The Australian version still exists: http://www.royalsocietyofstgeorge.com.au/ (consulted 1 November 2011).

109 Central African Times, 12 November 1904; 14 January, 11, 12, and 25 March, 1 and 29 April 1905; 14 April 1906; 3 April 1907.

110 Straits Times (Singapore), 12 April 1904.

111 Rhodesia Herald, 1 April 1912; East African Standard (Nairobi), 19 and 26 April 1913; Bulawayo Chronicle, 30 August 1918.

112 Ashburton Guardian, 24 April 1913.

113 Sydney Morning Herald, 27 April 1904; also New York Times, 24 April 1901.

114 The original painting of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria the First, painted by Mr. Thomas Sully, expressly for “The Society of the Sons of St. George”, Philadelphia, Philadelphia: The Society, 1839. The painting was mentioned as being placed behind the president's chair in the City Hotel, Philadelphia: see Philadelphia Inquirer, 29 April 1842.

115 Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 April 1862.

116 E.g. Montreal Gazette, 24 April 1878.

117 Hawaiian Gazette, 29 April 1868.

118 National Archives of Australia, A2/1904/2695, Letter from J. C. Langley, secretary of the Society of St George, to the Prime Minister, 26 November 1904.

119 Straits Times, 9 February 1926; 17 February 1927.

120 Central African Times, 12 November 1904; 14 January, 11, 12, and 25 March, 1 and 29 April 1905; 14 April 1906; 3 April 1907.

121 Straits Times, 9 February 1925; 3 February 1927. Also Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 4 February 1935. For the St George's Day celebration in 1923, see Straits Times, 9 February 1923.

122 Straits Times, 13 February 1933; 24 April 1937.

123 See, for example, The Colonist, 24 April 1903.

124 The Star (Auckland), 24 April 1903.

125 Thames Star, 29 October 1907.

126 English regional migrant legacies are briefly discussed in Phillips Jock and Hearn Terry, Settlers: New Zealand immigrants from England, Ireland and Scotland,1800–1945, Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2008, pp. 167–8. See also Dalziel Raewyn, ‘Popular protest in early New Plymouth: why did it occur?’, New Zealand Journal of History, 20, 1, 1986, pp. 3–26; Brad Patterson, ‘Cousin Jacks, new chums and ten pound poms: locating New Zealand's English diaspora’, in Bueltmann, Gleeson, and MacRaild, Hidden diaspora.

127 Evening Post (Wellington), 2 November 1895. On county societies, see Watson James, ‘English associationalism in the British Empire: Yorkshire societies in New Zealand before the First World War’, Britain and the World, 4, 2011, pp. 84–108.

128 Evening Post, 16 January 1896; also 2 July 1898 and 23 December 1913.

129 Evening Post, 19 October 1909; 31 January 1933; 22 February, 3 and 28 April 1936; 25 November and 16 December 1937; 24 April 1939.

130 Annual membership numbers were established using the Society's annual reports and newspaper evidence. For the annual reports, see New York Public Library, *ZAN-8373.

131 Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 8 September 1913.

132 Brisbane Courier, 25 October 1904.

133 St John Daily Sun, 11 October 1905.

134 The Mercury, 22 October 1907.

135 Brisbane Courier, 15 June 1922; The Mercury, 18 June 1928; The Argus, 4 April 1930. The original Magna Charta Association was a radical, maverick organization founded by an Irish Catholic, Edward Kenealy, to fight for parliamentary reform and the restoration of English liberties in the wake of the Tichborne Case, a courtroom cause célèbre over inheritance. The twentieth-century version was an ethno-nationalist organization, with no obvious connection to the earlier one. See Hamilton J. A., ‘Kenealy, Edward Vaughan Hyde (1819–1880)’, rev. Rohan McWilliam, Oxford Dictionary of Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/15356 (consulted 2 September 2011); McWilliam Rohan, The Tichborne claimant: a Victorian sensation, London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007.

136 See, for example, the approving tone of articles in the Iowa Press Citizen, 13 October 1921, and The Register (Adelaide), 3 September 1923.

137 Obituary, The Argus, 7 April 1945.

138 The Mercury, 18 June 1928.

139 South Carolina Historical Society, St George's Society Records, 1124.00.

140 National Archives of Australia, A2487/1919/10401, Extract of a resolution of a meeting of the RSStG, Adelaide, 29 September 1919.

141 Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 9 December 1930; Straits Times, 8 November 1932.

142 Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 15 November 1932.

143 Rhodesia Herald, 20 April 1905.

144 North American, 23 June 1897.

145 For instance, James Connolly wrote an article, ‘Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee (1897)’, which set out the case: Ellis Peter Beresford, James Connolly: selected writings, London: Pluto, 1988, p. 14.

146 Rules and constitution of the Society of the Sons of St George, Philadelphia, 1772, p. 6.

147 Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), 27 April 1813, 26 April 1814; New York Spectator, 28 April 1841; Weekly Herald (New York), 28 April 1849; Chicago Tribune, 2 December 1861.

148 North American, 18 March 1892.

149 Bangor Daily Whig and Courier, 13 May 1854.

150 Editorial, ‘What is the value of the Oath of Allegiance?’, The Republic: a monthly magazine of American literature, politics & art, 3 June 1852, p. 312.

151 Chicago Tribune, 25 May 1866.

152 Berthoff, British immigrants, p. 188.

153 R. C. Clipperton, HM's Consul, USA, 1886 (C. 4783), Commercial, No. 20 (1886), Reports by Her Majesty's representatives abroad, on the system of co-operation in foreign countries, p. 138. Kenny Kevin, Making sense of the Molly Maguires, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

154 Clipperton, p. 138.

155 O’Connor Thomas H., The Boston Irish: a political history, Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1995, pp. 95–165.

156 Berthoff, British immigrants, p. 197.

157 Boston Daily Advertiser, 22 October 1887.

158 Rules and regulations of the British American society 1830, St John: Donald A. Cameron, 1830, Rule 1, p. 3; Daily Evening Bulletin, 22 November 1888.

159 Berthoff, British immigrants, pp. 196–7; Anglo-American Times (London), 14 November 1874; Fall River Daily Evening News, 28 October 1876; Canadian-American, 17 September 1886.

160 Milwaukee Sentinel, 24 October 1888, 1 November 1889, 19 May 1892; Daily Inter Ocean, 13 May 1888.

161 Daily Inter Ocean, 25 October 1895, 25 October 1896.

162 Irish World and Industrial Liberator (New York), 30 April 1898.

163 Classic among proliferating Anglo-Saxon literature, is J. R. Dos Passos, The Anglo-Saxon century and the unification of the English-speaking people, New York and London: The Knickerbocker Press, 1903. See also Brandt John L., Anglo-Saxon supremacy or race contributions to civilization, Boston, MA, and Toronto: Badger and Copp Clark Co., 1915.

164 Irish World and Industrial Liberator, 29 April 1899.

165 Irish World and Industrial Liberator, 3 June 1899.

166 King John S., The early history of the Sons of England Benevolent Society, Toronto: Thomas Moore, 1891, p. 11.

167 Ibid.

168 ‘Address to Englishmen’, in Constitution of the Sons of England Benevolent Society under the supreme jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Canada, Bellville: J. W. London, 1899, pp. 3–5 (quotation from p. 3). A more sympathetic view was taken in South Africa, where it was said that the ‘more phlegmatic Englishman takes longer to stimulate into enthusiasm’: Mafeking Mail, 15 April 1904.

169 Elyria Daily Telephone, 15 May 1887; Aberdeen Weekly Journal, 18 May 1887.

170 Freeman's Journal, 15 July 1878; Leeds Mercury, 20 July 1878; Lloyd's Weekly Register, 21 July 1878.

171 The Argus, 19 March 1847. The clandestine, Catholic, Ribbon Society was founded in 1811 to resist the spread of the Orange Order, often using violence.

172 The Argus, 24 December 1884.

173 Western Argus (Kalgoorlie), 12 March 1918.

174 Brisbane Courier, 14 January 1920.

175 Mafeking Mail, 15 May 1901; Rhodesia Herald, 18 May 1910.

176 Rhodesia Herald, 24 April 1900.

177 Sir George Sprigg, at consecutive St George's Society events in Cape Town: The Pioneer (Allahabad), 13 June 1900; Mafeking Mail and Protectorate Guardian, 15 May 1901.

178 One noticed in Paul A. Kramer's excellent analysis of the coming together of British and American ideologies under the umbrella of Anglo-Saxonism: ‘Empires, exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: race and rule between the British and United States empires, 1880–1910’, Journal of American History, 88, 4, 2002, pp. 1315–53.

179 National Library of Australia, Pethick Collection, cloth souvenir programme, RSStG, St George's Day, 1920.

* We gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the AHRC (project grant AH/I001042/1), which facilitates our North American research, and of the editors and anonymous referees of this Journal, whose insights significantly improved the article.

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