This article proposes a new framework of analysis for studying inter-imperial spaces in global history. The analytical construct developed here – that of the inter-imperial microregion – highlights the density of networks and interactions found in certain areas with multiple competing polities. It provides a relational approach to the study of transnational and inter-polity exchanges that challenges traditional imperial narratives and suggests a more direct engagement between global, regional, and local histories. After discussing the theoretical and historiographical implications of this model, the article goes on to look at empirical evidence from the case of the Danish West Indies. It analyses the role that these Caribbean colonies played within the inter-imperial microregion of the Leeward Islands during the century from 1730 to 1830. The case study is structured around three central elements of colonial life – geography, security, and commerce – showing how these created the conditions for a high level of interdependence between colonies of multiple empires in the region.
Helpful comments on various incarnations of this article came from Lauren Benton, Jane Burbank, Frederick Cooper, Nadim Bawalsa, and Tony Andersson; from participants at the Configurations of Empires conference at New York University; from two anonymous readers; and from the editors of the Journal of Global History – I am thankful for all of them. Any errors are mine alone.
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11 Levi, Giovanni, Burke‘On microhistory,’ in Peter ‘On microhistory,’ in Peter, ed., New perspectives on historical writing, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992, pp. 93–113
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13 Ulrike Freitag and Achim von Oppen, ‘“Translocality”: an approach to connection and transfer in area studies’, in Ulrike Freitag and Achim von Oppen, eds., Translocality: the study of globalizing processes from a southern perspective, Leiden: Brill, 2010, pp. 5–6
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14 One has only to look at the contents of the two anthologies referenced above for examples of the breadth of perspectives covered by translocality.
15 Minshull, Roger, Regional geography, London: Hutchinson University Library, 1967, pp. 38–59
16 Banks, Kenneth J., Chasing empire across the sea: communication and the state in the French Atlantic, 1713–1763, Montreal: McGill University Press, 2006, pp. 65–100
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17 Weber, Max, ‘Objectivity in the social sciences’, in Edward Shils and Henry Finch, eds., The methodology of the social sciences, New York: Free Press, 1949, pp. 50–112
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18 Weber, ‘Objectivity’, p. 97
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19 Nørregård, George, Danish settlements in West Africa, 1658–1850, Boston, MA: Boston University Press, 1966
Feinberg, Harvey M., Africans and Europeans in West Africa: Elminans and Dutchmen on the Gold Coast during the eighteenth century, Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society, 1989
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20 Nwulia, Moses D. E., The history of slavery in Mauritius and the Seychelles, 1810–1875, Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1981
Scarr, Deryck, Seychelles since 1770: history of a slave and post-slavery society, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1999
21 Chappell, David A., Double ghosts: oceanian voyagers on Euroamerican ships, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997
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22 Battersby, Paul, To the islands: white Australians and the Malay archipelago since 1788, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007
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23 Hann, J. H., ‘Origin and development of the political system in the Shanghai International Settlement’, Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 22, 1982, pp. 207–229
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24 Ford, Lisa, Settler sovereignty: jurisdiction and indigenous peoples in America and Australia, 1788–1836, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010
Bannister, Jerry, The rule of admirals: law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699–1832, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003
25 Blaufarb, Rafe, ‘The western question: the geopolitics of Latin American independence’, American Historical Review, 112, 2007, pp. 742–763
Connelly, Matthew, A diplomatic revolution: Algeria's fight for independence and the origins of the post-Cold War era, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002
26 Elliott, John H., Empires of the Atlantic world: Britain and Spain in America 1492–1830, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007
Armitage, David and Braddick, Michael K., eds., The British Atlantic world, 1500–1800, 2nd edn, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009
27 Greene, Jack P. and Morgan, Philip D., eds., Atlantic history: a critical appraisal, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
28 Baker, Philip and Mühlhäuser, Peter, ‘Creole linguistics from its beginnings, through Schuchardt to the present day’, in Charles Stewart, ed., Creolization: history, ethnography, theory, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2007, pp. 84–107
Rupert, Creolization, pp. 212–243
29 Lauren Benton, Search for sovereignty, pp. 162–165
30 Heinzelmann, Eva, Robl, Stefanie, and Riis, Thomas, eds., The Oldenburg monarchy: an underestimated empire?, Kiel: Verlag Ludwig, 2006
31 Macmillan, Ken, Sovereignty and possession in the English new world: the legal foundations of empire, 1576–1640, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 204
32 Hall, Neville A. T., Slave society in the Danish West Indies: St Thomas, St John, and St Croix, Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 1992, pp. 1–32
33 Sunderland, Willard, Taming the wild field: colonization and empire on the Russian steppe, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004
34 Dookhan, Isaac, A history of the Virgin Islands of the United States, Kingston: Canoe Press, 1994, pp. 181–198
35 Rigsarkivet, Copenhagen, Chamber of Customs (henceforth RA, COC), Private Collections, 410, Miscellaneous notes taken by Councillor of State Martfeldt concerning the Danish West Indies, 1765.
36 This view is clearly expressed in reports from the British Leeward Islands, as more and more British colonists travelled to Ste Croix in the mid eighteenth century despite inter-imperial political rivalries at the regional level. Calendar of state papers, colonial (henceforth CSPC), 1734–1735, Governor Matthew to the Council of Trade and Plantations, Montserrat, 19 March 1734.
37 Green-Pedersen, Svend Erik, ‘Slave demography in the Danish West Indies and the abolition of the Danish slave trade’, in David Eltis and James Walvin, eds., The abolition of the Atlantic slave trade: origins and effects in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981, pp. 231–258
38 Scott, Julius S., ‘Crisscrossing empires: ships, sailors, and resistance in the Lesser Antilles in the eighteenth century’, in Robert L. Paquette and Stanley L. Engerman, eds., The Lesser Antilles in the age of European expansion, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996, pp. 128–143
39 Green-Pedersen, Svend Erik, ‘The history of the Danish negro slave trade, 1733–1807’, Revue française d'histoire d'outre-mer, 69, 1975, p. 199
Eltis, David, ‘The volume and direction of the Transatlantic slave trade: a reassessment’, William and Mary Quarterly, 60, 2001, pp. 17–46
40 Green-Pedersen, Svend Erik, ‘Colonial trade under the Danish flag: a case study of Danish slave trade in Cuba 1790–1807’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 5, 2, 1980, pp. 93–120
Nørregård, Georg, Danish settlements in West Africa, 1648–1850, trans. Sigurd Mammen, Boston, MA: Boston University Press, 1966, pp. 182–183
Murray, David R., Odious commerce: Britain, Spain, and the abolition of the Cuban slave trade, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980, pp. 58–60
41 Westergaard, Waldemar, ‘Account of the negro rebellion on St Croix, Danish West Indies, 1759’, Journal of Negro History, 11, 1, 1926, p. 56
42 Caron, Aimery P. and Highfield, Arnold R., eds., The French intervention in the St John slave revolt of 1733–34, Christiansted: Bureau of Libraries, Museums and Archaeological Services, 1981, p. 26
43 Letter from Champigny to Gardelin, 12 April 1734, in ibid., p. 34.
44 Letter from Champigny to Longueville, 12 April 1734, in ibid., pp. 27–30. See also letter from d'Orgueville to the French foreign minister, 1 July 1734, in ibid., pp. 48–9.
45 Pannet, Pierre Joseph, Report on the execrable conspiracy carried out by the Amina negroes on the Danish island of St Jan in America 1733, trans. Aimery P. Caron and Arnold R. Highfield, Christiansted: Antilles Press, 1984, p. 17
46 Caron and Highfield, French intervention, p. 34
47 CSPC, 1734–1735, Governor Matthew to Mr Popple, Antigua, 26 November 1734.
48 CSPC, 1734–1735, Governor Matthew to the Council of Trade and Plantations, Montserrat, 19 March 1734.
49 Printed in Westergaard, ‘Account’, p. 58.
50 RA, COC, 400, Miscellaneous Information 1760–1848, VII, ‘Various military accounts’.
51 RA, COC, 533, The British Occupation of the West Indies 1801–1807, ‘Report of Casimir von Scholten’, 11 January 1801.
52 RA, COC, 533, The British Occupation of the West Indies 1801–1807, ‘Further Reports’.
53 Ibid., ‘Proceedings of the St Thomas Burgher Council’, 13 March 1801.
55 Ibid., ‘Letter from Lieutenant-General Thomas Trigge to the Colonial Government of St Thomas’, 1801.
56 Vibæk, Jens, Vore gamle tropekolonier bind 2: Dansk Vestindien 1755–1848 (Our ancient tropical colonies, volume 2: the Danish West Indies 1755–1848), Copenhagen: Fremad, 1966, pp. 224–225
57 Armytage, Frances, The free port system in the British West Indies: a study in commercial policy, 1766–1822, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1953
58 Bro-Jørgensen, J. O., Vore gamle tropekolonier, bind 1: Dansk Vestindien indtil 1755 (Our ancient tropical colonies, volume 1: the Danish West Indies until 1755), Copenhagen: Fremad, 1966
59 RA, COC, 400, Miscellaneous information 1760–1848, VII, ‘Angaaende oen St Thomas som frihavn, og toldvæsenet deri (Concerning the isle of St Thomas as a free port, and the customs associated therewith)’.
60 Hall, Slave society, pp. 21–22
61 Comparison of the volume of incoming ships with the actual tax revenue gained by the colonies seems to confirm this. These documents are located in: RA, COC, 400, Miscellaneous information 1760–1848, VII; RA, COC, 490, Extracts and calculations concerning the West India trade, customs and shipping 1764–1856, ‘Beregning af specification (Calculations of specifications)’.
62 Dookhan, History, pp. 106–119
Westergaard, Waldemar, The Danish West Indies under company rule, 1671–1754, New York: Macmillan, 1917, pp. 48–50
63 Karras, Alan L., ‘Custom has the force of law: local officials and contraband in the Bahamas and the Floridas, 1748–1777’, Florida Historical Quarterly, 80, 3, 2002, pp. 281–311
Wim Klooster, ‘Inter-imperial smuggling in the Americas, 1600–1800,’ in Bernard Bailyn and Patricia L. Denault, eds., Soundings in Atlantic history: latent structures and intellectual currents, 1500–1830, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, pp. 176–180
64 Vibæk, Vore gamle tropekolonier, p. 301
65 RA, COC, 490, Extracts and calculations concerning the West India trade, customs, and shipping, 1764–1856.
66 RA, Government-General, 2.41, Files concerning piracy, 1818–25.
67 On this point in general and its consequences for regional politics in specific, see Blaufarb, ‘Western question’; Lauren Benton, ‘Strange sovereignty: the Provincia Oriental in the Atlantic world’, 20/10, El Mundo Atlántico y la Modernidad Iberoamericano, 1750–1850, forthcoming.
68 Vibæk, Vore gamle tropekolonier, pp. 253–256
69 Some examples of criminal investigations into piracy by local inhabitants can be found in RA, Sheriff of St Thomas, 13.6.3, ‘Proceedings of criminal cases’, 1823–26.
70 RA, Government-General, 2.42, The case against Jean Jayet de Beaupré and others concerning piracy, 1828–1829, ‘Court papers, St Thomas’.
71 Ibid., undated newspaper clippings from the St Kitts Advertiser.
72 On their alleged involvement in the illegal slave trade to Cuba by the Dutch schooner Zee Bloem, see ‘Mr. Secretary George Canning to the right hon. Frederick Lamb, Foreign Office, 4 April 1825, including 15 enclosures’, in British and foreign state papers vol. 12, London: HMSO, 1846, pp. 242–51. It is interesting here to note that the merchant house was seemingly involved with ships sailing under Dutch, French, Danish, and various Latin American flags.
73 harbourmaster, St Thomas, ‘Pilot journals of incoming ships’, 1821–1835
74 Vibæk, Vore gamle tropekolonier, pp. 301–310
Katic, Ulla, ‘The transportation of mules from South America to the West Indies in the 1860s’, Historia Medicinae Veterinariae, 23, 1998, pp. 3–25
75 Jespersen, Knud J. V., A history of Denmark, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
Jespersen, Knud J. V. and Feldbæk, Ole, Revanche og neutralitet, 1648–1814 (Revanche and neutrality, 1648–1814), Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 2006
* Helpful comments on various incarnations of this article came from Lauren Benton, Jane Burbank, Frederick Cooper, Nadim Bawalsa, and Tony Andersson; from participants at the Configurations of Empires conference at New York University; from two anonymous readers; and from the editors of the Journal of Global History – I am thankful for all of them. Any errors are mine alone.
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