Akerlof, G. and Yellen, J. (1994). Gang Behavior, Law Enforcement, and Community Values. In Aaron, H. J., Mann, T. E., and Taylor, T. (eds), Values and Public Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/gang-behavior-law-enforcement-community-values-akerlof-yellen.pdf. Backhaus, J. (1979). Defending Organized Crime? A Note. Journal of Legal Studies, 8 (3), 623–31. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/724172.
Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76 (2), 169–217.
Broekel, T., Balland, P., Burger, M., and van Oort, F. (2014). Modeling Knowledge Networks in Economic Geography: A Discussion of Four Methods. Annals of Regional Science, 53 (2), 423–52. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from https://doi.org.mutex.gmu.edu/10.1007/s00168-014-0616-2.
Buchanan, J. M. (1973). A Defense of Organized Crime? In Rottenberg, S. (ed.), Economics of Crime and Punishment. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, pp. 119–32.
Buxton, J., and Bingham, T. (2015). The Rise and Challenge of Dark Net Drug Markets. Policy Brief, 7.
Christin, N. (2012). Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement Analysis of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace. Cornell University Library Working Paper, No. 12–018.
Chang, J.-J., Lu, H. C., and Chen, M. (2005). Organized Crime or Individual Crime? Endogenous Size of a Criminal Organization and the Optimal Law Enforcement. Economic Inquiry, 43 (3), 661–75.
Dana, L. P. (2001). Introduction: Networks, Internationalization & Policy. Small Business Economics, 16 (2), 57–62. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/40229137.
Dick, A. R. (1995). When Does Organized Crime Pay? A Transaction Cost Analysis, International Review of Law and Economics, 5, 25–45.
Dolliver, D. S. and Kenney, J. L. (2016). Characteristics of Drug Vendors on the Tor Network: A Cryptomarket Comparison, Victims & Offenders, 11 (4), 600–20.
Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. and Jones, C. (2008). Assessing the Dangers of Illicit Networks: Why Al-Qaida May Be Less Threatening than Many Think. International Security, 33 (2), 7–44. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/40207130.
Epstein, J. M. and Axtell, R. (1996). Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Everton, S. F. (2012). Disrupting Dark Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fiorentini, G. and Peltzman, S. (1995). Introduction, in Fiorentini, G. and Peltzman, S. (eds) The Economics of Organised Crime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and CEPR.
Gambetta, D. (1996). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Garoupa, N. (2000). The Economics of Organized Crime and Optimal Law Enforcement. Economic Inquiry, 38 (2): 278–88.
Gaup Moe, M. E. (2008). Quantification of Anonymity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, pp. 1–12. Retrieved March 6, 2017 from www.elsevier.nl/locate/entcs.
Gordon, M., Forman, R. F., and Siatkowski, C.. (2006). Knowledge and Use of the internet as a Source of Controlled Substances. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30 (3), 271–4.
Griffiths, P., Lopez, D., Gallegos, R., Hughes, B., Noor, A., and Royuela, L. (2010). Khat Use and Monitoring Drug use in Europe: The Current Situation and Issues for the Future. Journal of Enthnopharmacology, 132 (2), 578–83.
Grinberg, R. (2011). Bitcoin: An Innovative Alternative Digital Currency. Hastings Science & Technology Law Journal, 4, 160–207.
Gunaratna, R. (2006). The Terror Market: Networks and Enforcement in the West. Harvard International Review, 27 (4), 66–9.
Hardy, R. A. and Norgaard, J. R. (2015). Reputation in the Internet Black Market: An Empirical and Theoretical Analysis of the Dark Web. Journal of Institutional Economics, 12 (3), 1–25. DOI 10.1017/S1744137415000454.
Holderness, C. G. and Pontiff, J. (2012). Hierarchies and the Survival of POWs during WWII. Forthcoming in Management Science.
Internet Freedom in a Surveillance Society (2015). Internet Freedom in a Surveillance Society. In Powers, S. M. and Jablonski, M. (eds), The Real Cyber War: The Political Economy of Internet Freedom. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, pp. 180–202. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt130jtjf.12.
Jankowski, M. S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Jennings, W. P. (1984). A note on the economics of organized crime. Eastern Economic Journal, 10 (3): 315–21.
Johnson, A., Syverson, P., Dingledine, R., and Mathewson, N. (2011). Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms, 1–12. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0, License. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from http://freehaven.net/~arma/anonymity-trust-ccs2011.pdf. Jones, N. P. (2016). The State Reaction and Illicit-Network Resilience. In Jones, N. P. (ed.), Mexico's Illicit Drug Networks and the State Reaction Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 19–46. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1c2crb0.7. Kruithof, K., Aldridge, J., Hétu, D. D., Sim, M., Dujso, E., and Hoorens, S. (2016). An Analysis of the Size, Scope, and the Role of the Netherlands. Internet-facilitated Drugs Trade. Retrieved March 9, 2017 from www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1607.html.
Lazear, E. and Rosen, S. (1981). Rank Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts. Journal of Political Economy, 89, 841–64.
Leeson, P. T. (2007). An-arrgh-chy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organization. Journal of Political Economy, 115 (6): 1049–94.
Leeson, P. T. (2009). The Calculus of Piratical Consent: The Myth of the Myth of Social Contract. Public Choice, 139 (3–4): 443–59.
Leeson, P. T. (2010). Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 76 (3): 497–510.
Leeson, P. T. and Rogers, D. (2012). Organizing Crime. Supreme Court Economic Review, 20 (1), 89–123.
Levitt, S. D. and Venkatesh, S. A. (2000). An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115 (3), 755–89. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/2586895.
Martin, J. (2014). Drugs on the Dark Net: How Cryptomarkets are Transforming the Global Trade in Illicit Drug. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mayntz, R. (2004). Organizational Forms of Terrorism: Hierarchy, Network, or a Type Sui Generis? (No. 04/4). MPIfG Discussion Paper.
McCoy, D., Bauer, K., Grunwald, D., Kohno, T., and Sicker, D. (2008). Shining Light in Dark Places: Understanding the Tor Network. In Borisov, N. and Goldberg, I. (eds), Privacy Enhancing Technologies (Vol. 5134). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 63–76. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-540-70630-4_5. Ogus, A. (2002). The Economic Basis of Legal Culture: Networks and Monopolization. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 22 (3), 419–34. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/3600653.
Piano, E. E. (2017). Free Riders: The Economics and Organization of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Public Choice. 170, 1–19.
Railsback, S. F. and Grimm, V. (2012). Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling: A Practical Introduction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schelling, T. C. (1971). What Is the Business of Organized Crime? American Scholar, 40 (4), 643–52. Retrieved November 28, 2017 from www.jstor.org/stable/41209902.
Skaperdas, S. (2001). The Political Economy of Organized Crime: Providing Protection When the State Does Not. Economic Governance, 2 (3), 173–202.
Skarbek, D. (2010). Putting the “Con” into Constitutions: The Economics of Prison Gangs. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 26 (2):183–211.
Skarbek, D. (2011). Governance and Prison Gangs. American Political Science Review, 105 (4), 702–16.
Skarbek, D. (2012). Prison Gangs, Norms, and Organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 82 (1): 96–109.
Spergel, I. (1995). The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Syverson, P. (2013). Practical Vulnerabilities of the Tor Anonymity Network. In Hsu, D. F. and Marinucci, D. (eds), Advances in Cyber Security: Technology, Operations, and Experiences. New York: Fordham University Press, pp. 60–73. Retrieved from November 28, 2017 www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x07xx.7.
Varese, F. (2001). The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.