Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-89n48 Total loading time: 0.371 Render date: 2022-12-09T13:57:27.369Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Geographic information systems and perceptual dialectology: a method for processing draw-a-map data

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 August 2013

Chris Montgomery*
Affiliation:
School of English, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Philipp Stoeckle
Affiliation:
Deutsches Seminar, Universität Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
*
*Address for correspondence: Chris Montgomery, The School of English Literature, Language and Linguistics, 2.27 Jessop West, 1 Upper Hanover Street, Sheffield S3 7RA, UK. Email c.montgomery@shef.ac.uk

Abstract

This article presents a new method for processing data gathered using the “draw-a-map” task in perceptual dialectology (PD) studies. Such tasks produce large numbers of maps containing many lines indicating nonlinguists’ perceptions of the location and extent of dialect areas. Although individual maps are interesting, and numerical data relating to the relative prominence of dialect areas can be extracted, an important value of the draw-a-map task is in aggregating data. This was always an aim of the contemporary PD method, although the nature of the data has meant that this has not always been possible. Here, we argue for the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in order to aggregate, process, and display PD data. Using case studies from the United Kingdom and Germany, we present examples of data processed using GIS and illustrate the future possibilities for the use of GIS in PD research.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anders, Christina A. 2010. Wahrnehmungsdialektologie: Das Obersächsische im Alltagsverständnis von Laien. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auer, Peter & Schmidt, Jürgen E. 2010. Language and space: An international handbook of linguistic variation, vol. 1: Theories and methods. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
Britain, David. 2002. Space and spatial diffusion. In Chambers, J. K., Trudgill, P. & Schilling-Estes, N. (eds), The handbook of language variation and change, 603637. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Britain, David. 2009. Language and space: The variationist approach. In Auer, P. & Schmidt, J. E. (eds), Language and space, an international handbook of linguistic variation, 142162. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Britain, David. 2010. Conceptualisations of geographic space in linguistics. In A. Lameli, R. Kehrein & S. Rabanus (eds), Language and space, an international handbook of linguistic variation, vol. 2: Language mapping, 6997. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Bucholtz, Mary, Bermudez, Nancy, Fung, Victor, Edwards, Lisa & Vargas, Rosalva. 2007. Hella nor Cal or totally so Cal? The perceptual dialectology of California. Journal of English Linguistics 35: 325352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bucholtz, Mary, Bermudez, Nancy, Fung, Victor, Vargas, Rosalva & Edwards, Lisa. 2008. The normative North and the stigmatized South: Ideology and methodology in the perceptual dialectology of California. Journal of English Linguistics 36: 6287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie. 2011. GeoDatenZentrum. Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie. http://www.bkg.bund.de/ ( 6 November, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Butters, Ronald R. 1991. Dennis Preston, perceptual dialectology. Language in Society 20: 294299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Anthony. 1985. The symbolic construction of community. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cukor-Avila, Patricia, Jeon, Lisa, Rector, Patrícia C., Tiwari, Chetan & Shelton, Zak. 2012. Texas – It's like a whole nuther country: Mapping Texans’ perceptions of dialect variation in the Lone Star state. In Proceedings from the Twentieth Annual Symposium about Language and Society, Austin, TX: Texas Linguistics Forum.Google Scholar
Edina. 2011. Digimap collections. http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/ ( 28 September, 2011 ).Google Scholar
ESRI. 2011a. ArcGIS Resource Center. http://resources.arcgis.com/content/web-based-help ( 10 November, 2011 ).Google Scholar
ESRI. 2011b. What is GIS? GIS.com. http://www.gis.com/content/what-gis ( 12 October, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Evans, Betsy E. 2011. Seattle to Spokane: Mapping English in Washington state. http://depts.washington.edu/folkling/. ( 12 October, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Garrett, Peter. 2010. Attitudes to language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geofabrik. 2011. Geofabrik. www.geofabrik.de ( 2 July, 2012 ).Google Scholar
Gomarasca, Marion A. 2009. Basics of geomatics. London and New York: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodey, Brian. 1971. City scene: An exploration into the image of central Birmingham as seen by area residents. Birmingham: Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
Gould, Peter & White, Rodney. 1986. Mental maps, 2nd edn. Boston: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
GRASS Development Team. 2011. GRASS GIS. http://grass.osgeo.org/ ( 12 October, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Grootaers, Willem A. 1999. The discussion surrounding the subjective boundaries of dialects. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: 115129. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heywood, Ian, Cornelius, Sarah & Carver, Steve. 2006. An introduction to geographical information systems, 3rd edn. Harlow, UK: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
HM Government. 2011. Opening up government. http://data.gov.uk/ ( 28 September, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Institut für Deutsche Sprache. 2011. Archiv für Gesprochenes Deutsch. http://agd.ids-mannheim.de/ ( 6 November, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Jeon, Lisa & Cukor-Avila, Patricia. 2012. Urbanicity and language variation and change: Mapping dialect perceptions in and of Seoul. Sociolinguistic Symposium 19, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
Jewell, Helen M. 1994. The north-south divide: The origins of northern consciousness in England. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Kehrein, Roland, Alfred, Lameli & Stefan, Rabanus. 2011. Introduction, xixvii. In Lameli, A., Kehrein, R. & Rabanus, S. (eds), Language and Space – An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation, Volume 2: Language Mapping. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kerswill, Paul. 2003. Dialect levelling and geographical diffusion in British English. In Britain, D. & Cheshire, J. (eds), Social dialectology: In honour of Peter Trudgill, 223243. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinchen, Rosie. 2011. Howay! Youths adopt hip accents. The Sunday Times, p. 11.Google Scholar
Kirk, John M. & Kretzschmar, William A.. 1992. Interactive linguistic mapping of dialect features. Literary and Linguistic Computing 7: 168175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kretzschmar, William A. 1999. Preface. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: xviixviii. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kretzschmar, William A. 2005. Linguistic atlas projects. http://us.english.uga.edu/cgi-bin/lapsite.fcgi/ ( 10 August, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon & Boberg, Charles. 2006. The atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology, and sound change: A multimedia reference tool. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lameli, Alfred, Giessler, Tanja, Kehrein, Roland, Lenz, Alexandra, Müller, Karl-Heinz, Nickel, Jost, Purschke, Christoph & Rabanus, Stefan. 2010. DiWA. Digital Wenker Atlas. http://www.diwa.info/ ( 10 August, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Lameli, Alfred, Kehrein, Roland & Rabanus, Stefan. 2010. Language and space, an international handbook of linguistic variation, vol. 2: Language mapping. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lameli, Alfred, Purschke, Christoph & Kehrein, Roland. 2008. Stimulus und Kognition. Zur Aktivierung mentaler Raumbilder. Linguistik Online 35(3): 5586.Google Scholar
Llamas, Carmen. 2000. Middlesbrough English: Convergent and divergent trends in a “part of Britain with no identity”. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics 8: 123148.Google Scholar
Long, Daniel. 1997. The perception of “standard” as the speech variety of a specific region: Computer-produced maps of perceptual dialect regions. In Thomas, A. R. (ed.), Issues and methods in dialectology, 256270. Bangor: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
Long, Daniel. 1999. Geographical perception of Japanese dialect regions. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: 177198. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
MapInfo Corporation. 2011. MapInfo. http://www.mapinfo.com/ ( 12 October, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Mase, Yoshio. 1999. Dialect consciousness and dialect divisions: Examples in the Nagano-Gifu boundary region. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: 7199. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinnie, Meghan & Dailey-O'Cain, Jennifer. 2002. A perceptual dialectology of Anglophone Canada from the perspective of young Albertans and Ontarians. In Long, D. & Preston, D. R. (eds), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 2: 277294. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Montgomery, Chris. 2007. Northern English dialects: A perceptual approach. Sheffield: University of Sheffield dissertation.Google Scholar
Montgomery, Chris. 2011. Perceptual dialectology, bespoke methods and the future for data processing. 8th United Kingdom Language Variation and Change Conference (UKLVC8), Edge Hill University.Google Scholar
Montgomery, Chris. 2012. The effect of proximity in perceptual dialectology. Journal of Sociolinguistics 16(5): 638668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nash Parker, Robert & Asencio, Emily K. 2008. GIS and spatial analysis for the social sciences: Coding, mapping and modelling. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nerbonne, John, Heggarty, Paul, van Hout, Roeland & Robey, David. 2008. Panel discussion on computing and the humanities. In Nerbonne, J., Gooskens, C., Kürschner, S. & van Bezooijen, R. (eds), International journal of humanities and arts computing, special issue on computing and language variation. 2: 243259. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Onishi, Isao & Long, Daniel. 1997. Perceptual dialectology quantifier (PDQ) for Windows. http://nihongo.hum.tmu.ac.jp/~long/maps/perceptmaps.htm ( 2 July, 2012 ).Google Scholar
Ordnance Survey. 2011. OS open data. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/products/os-opendata.html ( 28 September, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Orleans, Peter. 1967. Differential cognition of urban residents: Effects of social scale on mapping. In Truxal, J. G. (ed.), Science, engineering, and the city, 103117. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1982. Perceptual dialectology: Mental maps of United States dialects from a Hawaiian perspective. Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics 14: 549.Google Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1986. Five visions of America. Language in Society 15: 221240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1988. Change in the perception of language varieties. In Fisiak, J. (ed.), Historical dialectology: Regional and social, 475504. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1993. Folk dialectology. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), American dialect research, 333377. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1999a. A language attitude approach to the perception of regional variety. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: 359375. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 1999b. Introduction. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: xxiiixxxix. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, Dennis R. 2010. Perceptual dialectology in the 21st century. In Anders, C. A, Hundt, M. & Lasch, A. (eds), Perceptual dialectology. Neue Wege der Dialektologie (Linguistik – Impulse & Tendenzen), 130. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Preston, Dennis R & Howe, George M. 1987. Computerized studies of mental dialect maps. In Denning, K. M., Inkelas, S., McNair-Knox, F. & Rickford, J. (eds), Variation in language: NWAV-XV at Stanford (Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation). 361378. Stanford, CA: Department of Linguistics, Stanford University.Google Scholar
Purschke, Christoph. 2011. Regional linguistic knowledge and perception: On the conceptualization of Hessian. Dialectologia 2, Special Issue, 91118.Google Scholar
QGIS. 2011. Quantum GIS: Welcome to the Quantum GIS project. http://www.qgis.org/ ( 12 October, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Saurer, Helmut & Behr, Franz-Joseph. 1997. Geographische Informationssysteme. Eine Einführung, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.Google Scholar
Sibata, Takesi. 1999. Consciousness of dialect boundaries. In Preston, D. R. (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology 1: 3963. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckle, Philipp. 2010. Subjektive Dialektgrenzen im Alemannischen Dreiländereck. In Anders, C. A., Hundt, M. & Lasch, A. (eds), Perceptual dialectology – Neue Wege der Dialektologie, 291315. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Stoeckle, Philipp. 2011. The constitution of subjective dialect areas: Towards a hierarchisation of lay classification strategies. 6th International Conference on Language Variation in Europe, Freiburg, Germany.Google Scholar
Stoeckle, Philipp. 2012. The folk-linguistic construction of local dialect areas – linguistic and extra-linguistic factors. In Hansen, S., Schwarz, C., Stoeckle, P. & Streck, T. (eds), Dialectological and folk dialectological concepts of space. Current methods and perspectives in sociolinguistic research on dialect change, 142163, 271275. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
The Economist. 2011. England's regional accents: Geordie's still alreet. http://www.economist.com/node/18775029 ( 7 September, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Trudgill, Peter. 1999. The dialects of England, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
U.K. Data Archive. 2011. Census.ac.uk. http://www.census.ac.uk/ ( 28 September, 2011 ).Google Scholar
Wachman, Richard. 2011. North-South divide widens as public sector cuts hit businesses. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/oct/17/north-south-divide-widens-cuts ( 2 July, 2012 ).Google Scholar
Weijnen, Antonius A. 1946. De Grenzen Tussen de Oost-Noordbrabantse Dialecten Onderin. In Weijnen, A. A., Renders, M. & van Guineken, J. (eds), Oost-Noordbrabantse Dialectproblernen, 115. Bijdragen en Mededelingen der Dialecrencommissie van de Koninkjke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam VII. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij.Google Scholar
Wise, Stephen. 2002. GIS basics. London: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Download undefined(File)
File 7 MB
23
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Geographic information systems and perceptual dialectology: a method for processing draw-a-map data
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Geographic information systems and perceptual dialectology: a method for processing draw-a-map data
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Geographic information systems and perceptual dialectology: a method for processing draw-a-map data
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *