Skip to main content
×
×
Home

On (in)definite articles: implicatures and (un)grammaticality prediction1

  • John A. Hawkins (a1)
Extract

Since Paul Grice published ‘Logic and conversation’ in 1975, there have been a number of attempts to develop his programmatic remarks on conversational and conventional implicatures further (see Gazdar, 1979; Atlas & Levinson, 1981; Horn, 1985; Sperber & Wilson, 1986; and especially Levinson, 1983, and the references cited therein). The result has been a growing understanding of the relationship between semantics and pragmatics, and more generally of human reasoning in everyday language use. Many aspects of natural language understanding that were previously thought to be part of the conventional meaning of a given expression can now be shown to be the result of conversational inference. And with cancellability as the diagnostic test, a number of traditional problems in the study of meaning are yielding to more satisfactory analyses. Even more ambitiously, implicatures are penetrating into core areas of the syntax, as pragmatic theories of increasing subtlety are proposed for ‘grammatical’ phenomena such as Chomsky's (1981, 1982) binding principles (see Reinhart, 1983, and Levinson, 1987a, b, 1991).

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ariel, M. (1988). Referring and accessibility. JL 24. 6587.
Ariel, M. (1990). Accessing noun phrase antecedents. London: Routledge.
Atlas, J. D. & Levinson, S. C. (1981). It-clefts, informativeness and logical form. In Cole, P. (ed.) Radical pragmatics. New York: Academic Press. 161.
Bayer, J. (1986). Review of Safir (1985). Studies in Language 10. 167186.
Burton-Roberts, N. (1981). Review of Hawkins (1978). Lg 57. 191196.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, N. (1982). Some concepts and consequences of the theory of government and binding. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Christophersen, P. (1939). The articles: a study of their theory and use in English. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Clark, H. H. & Haviland, S. (1977). Comprehension and the given–new contract. In Freedle, R. (ed.) Discourse production and comprehension. Hillsdale: Erlbaum. 140.
Clark, H. H. & Marshall, C. R. (1981). Definite reference and mutual knowledge. In Joshi, A., Webber, B. & Sag, I. (eds) Elements of discourse understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1063.
Corblin, F. (1981). Review of Hawkins (1978). Le Français Moderne 49. 8488.
Cruse, D. A. (1980). Review of Hawkins (1978). JL 16. 308316.
Declerck, R. (1987). Definiteness and inclusive reference. Journal of Literary Semantics 16. 1229.
Du Bois, J. W. (1980). Beyond definiteness: the trace of identity in discourse. In Chafe, W. (ed.) The pear stories: cognitive, cultural and linguistic aspects of narrative production. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. 203274.
Ebert, K. H. (1982). The definite articles with inalienables in English and German. In Lohnes, W. F. & Hopkins, A. (eds) The contrastive grammar of English and German. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. 6475.
Erkü, F. & Gundel, J. (1987). The pragmatics of indirect anaphors. In Verschueren, J. & Bertuccelli-Papi, M. (eds) The pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 533545.
Fanselow, G. (1989). Konkurrenzphänomene in der Syntax: eine nicht-pragmatische Reduktion der Prinzipien B und C der Bindungstheorie. Linguistische Berichte 123. 385414.
Fox, B. A. & Thompson, S. A. (1990). A discourse explanation of the grammar of relative clauses in English conversation. Lg 66. 297316.
Galmiche, M. (1989). À propos de la définitude. Langages 94. 737.
Gazdar, G. (1979). Pragmatics: implicature, presupposition and logical form. New York: Academic Press.
Geis, M. & Zwicky, A. (1971). On invited inferences. LIn 2. 561566.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In Cole, P. & Morgan, J. (eds) Syntax and semantics 3: Speech acts. New York: Academic Press. 4158.
Harris, M. (1980). Review of Hawkins (1978). Linguistics and Philosophy 3. 419427.
Hawkins, J. A. (1976). On explaining some ungrammatical sequences of article + modifier in English. Proceedings of the 12th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 287301.
Hawkins, J. A. (1978). Definiteness and indefiniteness: a study in reference and grammaticality prediction. London: Croom Helm; and Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press.
Hawkins, J. A. (1984). A note on referent identifiability and co-presence. Journal of Pragmatics 8. 649659.
Hawkins, J. A. (1990). A parsing theory of word order universals. LIn 21. 223261.
Hawkins, J. A. (1991). Innateness and function in language universals. In Hawkins, J. A. & GellMann, M. (eds) The evolution of human languages. Redwood City, Calif.: Addison-Wesley.
Heim, I. R. (1982). The semantics of definite and indefinite noun phrases. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Holmback, H. (1984). An interpretive solution to the definiteness effect problem. Linguistic Analysis 13. 195215.
Horn, L. R. (1972). On the semantic properties of the logical operators in English. Mimeo, Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Horn, L. R. (1985). Toward a new taxonomy for pragmatic inference: Q-based and R-based implicature. In Schiffrin, D. (ed.) Meaning, form, and use in context: linguistic applications. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 1142.
Kadmon, N. (1990). Uniqueness. Linguistics and Philosophy 13. 273324.
Kamp, H. (1981). A theory of truth and semantic representation. In Groenendijk, J., Stokhof, M. & Veltman, F. (eds) Formal methods in the study of language: proceedings of the third Amsterdam Colloquium, Part I, Mathematical Centre, Amsterdam. (Reprinted in Groenendijk, J., Janssen, T. & Stokhof, M. (eds) Truth, Interpretation and Information, 1984. Dordrecht: Foris.)
Kempson, R. (1988). Grammar and conversational principles. In Newmeyer, F. (ed.) Linguistic theory: extensions and implications (Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, II), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 139163.
Kempson, R. M. & Cormack, A. (1981). Ambiguity and quantification. Linguistics and Philosophy 4. 259309.
Klégr, A. (1984). Hawkins' location theory and the use of articles in of-genitive headnouns. Philologica Pragensia A.27. 2332.
Kleiber, G. (1983). Article défini, théorie de la localisation, et présupposition existentielle. Langue Française 57. 87105.
Klein, E. (1980). Locating the articles; review of Hawkins (1978). Linguistics 18. 147157.
Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.
Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levinson, S. C. (1987a). Pragmatics and the grammar of anaphora: a partial pragmatic reduction of binding and control phenomena. JL 23. 379434.
Levinson, S. C. (1987b). Minimization and conversational inference. In Verschueren, J. & Bertucelli-Papi, M. (eds) The pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 61129.
Levinson, S. C. (1989). Review article of Sperber and Wilson (1986). JL 25. 455472.
Levinson, S. C. (1991). Pragmatic reduction of the binding conditions revisited. JL 27. 107162.
Lyons, C. G. (1980). The meaning of the English definite article. In Van der Auwera, J. (ed.) The semantics of determiners. London: Croom Helm; and Baltimore: University Park Press. 8195.
McCawley, J. D. (1979). Presupposition and discourse context. In Oh, C. K. (ed.) Syntax and semantics 11: Presupposition. New York: Academic Press. 371388.
Miller, G. A. & Chomsky, N. (1963). Finitary models of language users. In Luce, R. D., Bush, R. R. & Galanter, E. (eds) Handbook of mathematical psychology, vol. 2. New York: Wiley.
Minsky, M. (1975). A framework for representing knowledge. In Winston, P. (ed.) The psychology of computer vision. New York: McGraw-Hill. 211277.
Prince, E. F. (1981a). Review of Hawkins (1978). Kritiken Litterarum 10. 109–10.
Prince, E. F. (1981b). Toward a taxonomy of given/new information. In Cole, P. (ed.) Radical pragmatics. New York: Academic Press. 223255.
Rando, E. & Napoli, D. J. (1978). Definites in there sentences. Lg 54. 300313.
Reinhart, T. (1983). Anaphora and semantic interpretation. London: Croom Helm.
Russell, B. (1905). On denoting. Mind 14. 479493.
Safir, K. (1985). Syntactic chains. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schiffer, S. (1972). Meaning. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, C. S. (1969). Determiners and relative clauses in a generative grammar of English. In Reibel, D. A. & Schane, S. A. (eds) Modern studies in English: readings in transformational grammar. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 247263.
Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: communication and cognition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; and Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Vater, H. (1982). Review of Hawkins (1978). Studies in Language 6. 261271.
Vater, H. (1983). Zur Pragmatik der Determinantien. In Stickel, G. (ed.) Sprache der Gegenwart: Pragmatik in der Grammatik. (Jahrbuch 1983 des Instituts für deutsche Sprache.) Schwann. 206223.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0022-2267
  • EISSN: 1469-7742
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed