Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-xr9nb Total loading time: 0.221 Render date: 2021-09-18T11:04:09.890Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part I: Milling and dispersion of powder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2011

Nelson S. Bell*
Affiliation:
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
Joe Cesarano
Affiliation:
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
James A. Voigt
Affiliation:
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
Steve J. Lockwood
Affiliation:
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
Duane B. Dimos
Affiliation:
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
*Corresponding
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: nsbell@sandia.gov
Get access

Abstract

Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43–46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. This allowed for increased solids loading in the slurry and a green body fabrication study to be presented in our companion paper.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2004

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1Sigmund, W.M., Bell, N.S. and Bergstrom, L., Novel powder processing methods for advanced ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 1557 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2Vojta, A. and Clarke, D.R., Electrical-impulse-induced fracture of zinc oxide varistor ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 2086 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3Dosch, R.G., Tuttle, B.A. and Brooks, R.A., Chemical preparation and properties of high-field zinc oxide. J. Mater. Res. 1, 90 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4 T.J. Gardner and S.J. Lockwood: Scale-up of a batch-type chemical powder preparation process for high field varistor fabrication, Sandia Report, SAND87-2194, Feb. 1988.Google Scholar
5 K.M. Kimball and D.H. Doughty: Aluminum doping studies on high field ZnO varistors, Sandia Report, SAND86-0713, Aug. 1987.Google Scholar
6Gardner, T.J., Doughty, D.H., Lockwood, S.J., Tuttle, B.A. and Voigt, J.A. The effect of low level dopants on chemically prepared varistor materials, Ceramic Transactions (American Ceramic Society, Inc., Westerville, OH, 1989), 3.Google Scholar
7Bergstrom, L., Shinosaki, K., Tomiyama, H. and Mitzutani, N., Colloidal processing of a very fine BaTiO3 powder—effect of particle interactions on the suspension properties, consolidation, and sintering behavior. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 291 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8Bergstrom, L., Rheological properties of concentrated, nonaqueous silicon nitride suspensions. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 3033 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9Cesarano, J., Aksay, I.A. and Bleier, A., Stability of aqueous alpha-alumina suspensions stabilized with polyelectrolytes. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 250 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10Cesarano, J. and Aksay, I.A., Processing of highly concentrated aqueous alpha-alumina suspensions with poly(methacrylic acid) polyelectrolyte. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71, 1062 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11Baes, C.F. and Mesmer, R.E., The Hydrolysis of Cations (Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 1986).Google Scholar
12Johnson, S.B., Russell, A.S. and Scales, P.J., Volume fraction effects in shear rheology and electroacoustic studies of concentrated alumina and kaolin suspensions. Colloids Surf. A 141, 119 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J., Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy for characterizing concentrated dispersions and emulsions. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 92, 73 (2001).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J., New developments in acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy for characterizing concentrated dispersions. Colloids Surf. A 192, 267 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15 Andrei Dukhin: personal communication.Google Scholar
16Porasso, R.D., Benegas, J.C. and van den Hoop, M.A.G.T., Chemical and electrostatic association of various metal ions by poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) as studied by potentiometry. J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2361 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17Sun, J., Bergstrom, L. and Gao, L., Effect of magnesium ions on the adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) onto alumina. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 2710 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18Abraham, T., Kumpulainen, A., Xu, Z., Rutland, M., Claesson, P.M. and Masliyah, J., Polyelectrolyte-mediated interaction between similarly charged surfaces: Role of divalent counter ions in tuning surface forces. Langmuir 17, 8321 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19Zeghal, M. and Auvray, L., Structure of polymer complexes in water. Europhys. Lett. 45, 482 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20Podhajecka, K., Stepanek, M., Prochazka, K. and Brown, W., Hybrid polymeric micelles with hydrophobic cores and mixed polyelectrolyte/nonelectrolyte shells in aqueous media. 2. Studies of the shell behavior. Langmuir 17, 4245 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21Rmaile, H.H. and Schlenoff, J.B., Internal p Ka’s’ in polyelectrolyte multilayers: Coupling protons and salt Langmuir 18 (2002).Google Scholar
22Netz, R.R., Charge regulation of weak polyelectrolytes at the low- and high-dielectric constant substrates. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15 S239 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part I: Milling and dispersion of powder
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part I: Milling and dispersion of powder
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Colloidal processing of chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors. Part I: Milling and dispersion of powder
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *