Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-25T14:12:04.026Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Micromolding three-dimensional amorphous metal structures

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2011

Jeffrey A. Bardt
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Gerald R. Bourne*
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Tony L. Schmitz
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
John C. Ziegert
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
W. Gregory Sawyer
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
*
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: grb@ufl.edu
Get access

Abstract

In this article, we report a simple and inexpensive approach to micromolding of complex, three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures (with non-line-of-sight features) out of a high-strength amorphous metal. Inexpensive sacrificial silicon molds were created using lithography and etching techniques originally developed for integrated circuit production by the microelectronics industry and later adopted for microelectromechanical (MEMS) manufacturing. Multiple silicon layers were stacked, and the metallic glass was forced into the cavities under heat and pressure in an open air environment. Following cooling, the metallic structures were released by etching the silicon away in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) bath. Process studies showed that temperature is the most significant variable governing mold-filling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sections of the mold/glass interface showed successful replication of features with characteristic dimensions on the order of 10 nanometers and no discernible gap between the silicon and the metallic glass. This scalable micromolding process leverages the inexpensive and readily available aspects of silicon lithography to economically support the mass customization (low volume production) of metal microcomponents without elaborate infrastructure needs.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

1Bustillo, J., Howe, R., and Muller, R.: Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical systems. Proc. IEEE 86, 1552 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2Reynaerts, D., Heeren, P., and Van Brussel, H.: Microstructuring of silicon by electro-discharge machining (edm). 2. Applications. Sens. Actuators, A Phys. 61, 379 (1997).Google Scholar
3Bhattacharyya, B., Munda, J., and Malapati, M.: Advancement in electrochemical micro-machining. Int. J. Machine Tools Manufact. 44, 1577 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4Michaelis, S., Timme, H., Wycisk, M., and Binder, J.: Acceleration threshold switches from an additive electroplating mems process. Sens. Actuators, A Phys. 85, 418 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5Peker, A. and Johnson, W.: A highly processable metallic-glass- Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5. Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2342 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6Kim, Y., Busch, R., Johnson, W., Rulison, A., and Rhim, W.: Metallicglass formation in highly undercooled Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 during containerless electrostatic levitation processing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2136 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7Busch, R., Kim, Y., and Johnson, W.: Thermodynamics and kinetics of the undercooled liquid and the glass-transition of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 alloy. J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4039 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8Lin, X. and Johnson, W.: Formation of Ti–Zr–Cu–Ni bulk metallic glasses. J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6514 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9Ohsaka, K., Chung, S., and Rhim, W.: Specific volumes of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 alloy in the liquid, glass, and crystalline states. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 726 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10Lu, J., Ravichandran, G., and Johnson, W.: Deformation behavior of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 bulk metallic glass over a wide range of strain-rates and temperatures. Acta Mater. 51, 3429 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11Klement, W., Willens, R., and Duwez, P.: Non-crystalline structure in solidified gold-silicon alloys. Nature 187, 869 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12Johnson, W.: Bulk metallic glasses—A new engineering material. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 1, 383 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13Masuhr, A., Busch, R., and Johnson, W.: Thermodynamics and kinetics of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu10.0Ni12.5Be22.5 bulk metallic glass forming liquid: Glass formation from a strong. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 252, 566 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14Masuhr, A., Waniuk, T., Busch, R., and Johnson, W.: Time scales for viscous flow, atomic transport, and crystallization in the liquid and supercooled liquid states of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2290 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar