Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ndmmz Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-25T14:19:40.739Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Structural and electrical properties of single Ga/ZnO nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 May 2012

Yuval Shmueli
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Gennady E. Shter
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Ossama Assad
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Hossam Haick
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Philippe Sonntag
Hutchinson S.A, Research Center, Rue Gustave Noury - BP31, F-45120 Chalette-sur-Loing, France
Philippe Ricoux
TOTAL S.A/DG, Tour Coupole, 29F40, 92078 Paris La Defense Cedex, France
Gideon S. Grader*
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


Nanofibers (NFs) of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) were prepared by electrospinning of polymer–salts solution. Sintering profiles reported in the literature led to loss of the fibrous structure. Hence, the morphology, thermal stability, and phase composition of green and sintered fibers were investigated as function of sintering conditions to elucidate this degradation process. Optimal results were obtained at 400 °C for 30 min. This low temperature sintering of GZO fibers has not been previously reported. The fibers were porous with a significant surface area, making it possible to test their sensitivity to environmental changes. In particular, the response of the GZO NFs to changes in humidity was demonstrated for the first time. The electrical and sensing properties of single NFs prepared at these conditions were studied using a field-effect transistor mode.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1.Özgür, Ü., Alivov, Y.I., Liu, C., Teke, A., Reshchikov, M.A., Dogan, S., Avrutin, V., Cho, S.-J., and Morkoç, H.: A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 1 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2.Klingshirn, C.: ZnO: From basics towards applications. Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3027 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Izyumskaya, N., Avrutin, V., Özgür, Ü., Alivov, Y.I., and Morkoç, H.: Preparation and properties of ZnO and devices. Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1439 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4.Wang, X., Summers, C.J., and Wang, Z.L.: Large-scale hexagonal-patterned growth of aligned ZnO nanorods for nano-optoelectronics and nanosensor arrays. Nano Lett. 4, 423 (2004).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Fan, Z., Wang, D., Chang, P.-C., Tseng, W.-Y., and Lu, J.G.: ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor and oxygen sensing property. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5923 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Pandey, N.K. and Tiwari, K.: Morphological and relative humidity sensing properties of pure ZnO nanomaterial. Sens. Transducers 122, 9 (2010).Google Scholar
7.Morales, A.M. and Lieber, C.M.: A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires. Science 279, 208 (1998).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Zhang, Y.F., Tang, Y.H., Wang, N., Yu, D.P., Lee, C.S., Bello, I., and Lee, S.T.: Silicon nanowires prepared by laser ablation at high temperature. Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1835 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9.Cui, Y., Lauhon, L.J., Gudiksen, M.S., Wang, J., and Lieber, C.M.: Diameter-controlled synthesis of single-crystal silicon nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2214 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10.Wang, N., Tang, Y.H., Zhang, Y.F., Lee, C.S., Bello, I., and Lee, S.T.: Si nanowires grown from silicon oxide. Chem. Phys. Lett. 299, 237 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11.Lee, S.T., Zhang, Y.F., Wang, N., Tang, Y.H., Bello, I., Lee, C.S., and Chung, Y.W.: Semiconductor nanowires from oxides. J. Mater. Res. 14, 4503 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12.Gole, J.L., Stout, J.D., Rauch, W.L., and Wang, Z.L.: Direct synthesis of silicon nanowires, silica nanospheres, and wire-like nanosphere agglomerates. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2346 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13.Marsen, B., Lonfat, M., Scheier, P., and Sattler, K.: Energy gap of silicon clusters studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 62, 6892 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Holmes, J.D., Johnston, K.P., Doty, R.C., and Korgel, B.A.: Control of thickness and orientation of solution-grown silicon nanowires. Science 287, 1471 (2000).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15.Formhals, A.: Process and apparatus for preparing artificial threads. U.S. Patent No. 1,975,504, 1934.Google Scholar
16.Li, D. and Xia, Y.: Electrospinning of nanofibers: Reinventing the wheel? Adv. Mater. 16, 1151 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17.Rutledge, G.C. and Fridrikh, S.V.: Formation of fibers by electrospinning. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59, 1384 (2007).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18.Ramakrishna, S., Fujihara, K., Teo, W.-E., Lim, T.-C., and Ma, Z.: An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers (World Scientific, Singapore, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19.Yang, D.-J., Chen, F., Xiong, Z.-C., Xiong, C.-D., and Wang, Y-Z.: Tissue anti-adhesion potential of biodegradable PELA electrospun membranes. Acta Biomater. 5, 2467 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20.Liang, D., Hsiao, B.S., and Chu, B.: Functional electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 59, 1392 (2007).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21.Qin, X.-H. and Wang, S.-Y.: Electrospun nanofibers from crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) and its filtration efficiency. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 109, 951 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Xu, S., Sun, D., Liu, H., Wang, X., and Yan, X.: Fabrication of Cu-doped cerium oxide nanofibers via electrospinning for preferential CO oxidation. Catal. Commun. 12, 514 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23.Mukherjee, K., Teng, T.-H., Jose, R., and Ramakrishna, S.: Electron transport in electrospun TiO2 nanofiber dye-sensitized solar cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012101 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24.Grader, G.S., Shter, G.E., Sonntag, P., and Ricoux, P.: Metal and composite carbon-metal nanofibers by electrospinning of a polymer/salt/nanopowder suspension. U.S. Patent No. 61,474,394, 2011.Google Scholar
25.Lim, S.K., Hwang, S.-H., Kim, S., and Park, H.: Preparation of ZnO nanorods by microemulsion synthesis and their application as a CO gas sensor. Sens. Actuators, B 160, 94 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26.Ryu, H.-W., Park, B.-S., Akbar, S.A., Lee, W.-S., Hong, K.-J., Seo, Y.-J., Shin, D.-C., Park, J.-S., and Choi, G.-P.: ZnO sol-gel derived porous film for CO gas sensing. Sens. Actuators, B 96, 717 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27.Chen, J., Yan, X., Liu, W., and Xue, Q.: The ethanol sensing property of magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films modified by Ag ion implantation. Sens. Actuators, B 160, 1499 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28.Xiangfeng, C., Dongli, J., Djurišic, A.B., and Leung, Y.H.: Gas-sensing properties of thick film based on ZnO nano-tetrapods. Chem. Phys. Lett. 401, 426 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29.Rout, C.S., Hari Krishna, S., Vivekchand, S.R.C., Govindaraj, A., and Rao, C.N.R.: Hydrogen and ethanol sensors based on ZnO nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 586 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30.Chen, M., Wang, Z., Han, D., Gu, F., and Guo, G.: High-sensitivity NO2 gas sensors based on flower-like and tube-like ZnO nanomaterials. Sens. Actuators, B 157, 565 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31.Kishimoto, Y., Nakagawara, O., Seto, H., Koshido, Y., and Yoshino, Y.: Improvement in moisture durability of ZnO transparent conductive films with Ga heavy doping process. Vacuum 83, 544 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32.Hong, H.-S. and Chung, G.-S.: Humidity sensing characteristics of Ga-doped zinc oxide film grown on a polycrystalline AlN thin film based on a surface acoustic wave. Sens. Actuators, B 150, 681 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33.Wang, W., Li, Z., Liu, L., Zhang, H., Zheng, W., Wang, Y., Huang, H., Wang, Z., and Wang, C.: Humidity sensor based on LiCl-doped ZnO electrospun nanofibers. Sens. Actuators, B 141, 404 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34.Zhang, H., Li, Z., Wang, W., Wang, C., and Liu, L.: Na+-doped zinc oxide nanofiber membrane for high speed humidity sensor. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93, 142 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35.Wu, H. and Pan, W.: Preparation of zinc oxide nanofibers by electrospinning. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 699 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36.Yang, X., Shao, C., Guan, H., Li, X., and Gong, J.: Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanofibers by using electrospun PVA/zinc acetate composite fiber as precursor. Inorg. Chem. Commun. 7, 176 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37.Lotus, A.F., Kang, Y.C., Walker, J.I., Ramsier, R.D., and Chase, G.G.: Effect of aluminum oxide doping on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of zinc oxide (AOZO) nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 166, 61 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38.Zhou, B., Wu, Y., Wu, L., Zou, K., and Gai, H.: Effects of Al dopants on the microstructures and optical properties of ZnO nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. Physica E 41, 705 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39.Wang, W., Huang, H., Li, Z., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., Zheng, W., and Wang, C.: Zinc oxide nanofiber gas sensors via electrospinning. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3817 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40.Goldberger, J., Sirbuly, D.J., Law, M., and Yang, P.: ZnO nanowire transistors. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 9 (2005).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41.Wu, H., Lin, D., Zhang, R., and Pan, W.: ZnO nanofiber field-effect transistor assembled by electrospinning. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 656 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42.Jiang, T., Zhou, X., Zhang, J., Zhu, J., Li, X., and Li, T.: Study of humidity properties of zinc oxide modified porous silicon. Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference “Sensor 2006”, Daegu, Korea, October 22-25, 2006 (IEEE, New York, NY, 2006). pp. 1211–1214.Google Scholar