Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Additive manufacturing-enabled shape transformations via FFF 4D printing

  • Abishera Ravichandra Rajkumar (a1) and Kumar Shanmugam (a1)
Abstract

Fused-filament-fabrication (FFF) is a commonly used and commercially successful additive-manufacturing method for thermoplastics. Depending on the FFF process parameters, the internal-strains along print direction, thermal-gradient across layers, and anisotropy introduced during layer-by-layer build-up can significantly affect the macroscopic properties, dimensional stability, and structural performance of the final part. Conversely, these factors can be optimized to result in unique, controllable thermally actuated shape-transformations. This work aims at quantifying and understanding the underlying mechanisms that drive the thermally actuated shape-transformation in three commonly used thermoplastics fabricated by the FFF method namely, poly-lactic-acid (PLA), high-impact-polystyrene (HIPS), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). Initially, the release of internal-strains is analyzed for unidirectionally printed samples experimentally and computationally, employing a thermoviscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model. Subsequently, two basic initial (as-printed) configurations, namely, a beam and a circular-disc are chosen to study the 1D to 2D and 2D to 3D shape-transformations, respectively. The effect of process parameters such as the printing speed, print path, and infill density on the shape transformation behavior is investigated systematically. Finally, the results are applied to demonstrate shape-transformations for application in morphing-structures and/or as an alternative, simplified process in fabricating curved-components.

Copyright
Corresponding author
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: s.kumar@eng.oxon.org
References
Hide All
1.Liljenhjerte, J., Upadhyaya, P., and Kumar, S.: Hyperelastic strain measurements and constitutive parameters identification of 3d printed soft polymers by image processing. Addit. Manuf. 1, 4048 (2016).
2.Kumar, S., Wardle, B.L., and Arif, M.F.: Strength and performance enhancement of bonded joints by spatial tailoring of adhesive compliance via 3D printing. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 884891 (2016).
3.Kumar, S., Wardle, B.L., Arif, M.F., and Ubaid, J.: Stress reduction of 3D printed compliance‐tailored multilayers. Adv. Eng. Mater. 20, 1700883 (2018).
4.Khan, M.A., Kumar, S., and Cantwell, W.J.: Performance of additively manufactured cylindrical bonded systems with stiffness-tailored interface. Int. J. Solids Struct. 152, 7184 (2018).
5.Khan, M.A. and Kumar, S.: Performance enhancement of tubular multilayers via compliance-tailoring: 3D printing, testing, and modeling. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 140, 93108 (2018).
6.Ubaid, J., Wardlle, B.L., and Kumar, S.: Strength and performance enhancement of multilayers by spatial tailoring of adherend compliance and morphology via multimaterial jetting additive manufacturing. Sci. Rep. 8, 13592 (2018).
7.Dugbenoo, E., Arif, M.F., Wardle, B.L., and Kumar, S.: Enhanced bonding via additive manufacturing-enabled surface tailoring of 3D printed continuous-fiber composites. Adv. Eng. Mater. (2018). (in press). https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201800691.
8.Ahn, S-H., Montero, M., Odell, D., Roundy, S., and Wright, P.K.: Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS. Rapid Prototyp. J. 8, 248257 (2002).
9.Sood, A.K., Ohdar, R.K., and Mahapatra, S.S.: Parametric appraisal of mechanical property of fused deposition modelling processed parts. Mater. Des 31, 287295 (2010).
10.Domingo-Espin, M., Puigoriol-Forcada, J.M., Garcia-Granada, A-A., Lluma, J., Borros, S., and Reyes, G.: Mechanical property characterization and simulation of fused deposition modeling polycarbonate parts. Mater. Des. 83, 670677 (2015).
11.Arif, M., Kumar, S., Varadarajan, K., and Cantwell, W.: Performance of biocompatible peek processed by fused deposition additive manufacturing. Mater. Des. 146, 249259 (2018).
12.Wang, T-M., Xi, J-T., and Jin, Y.: A model research for prototype warp deformation in the fdm process. Int. J. Adv. Des. Manuf. Technol. 33, 10871096 (2007).
13.Kousiatza, C. and Karalekas, D.: In situ monitoring of strain and temperature distributions during fused deposition modeling process. Mater. Des. 97, 400406 (2016).
14.Kantaros, A. and Karalekas, D.: Fiber Bragg grating based investigation of residual strains in abs parts fabricated by fused deposition modeling process. Mater. Des. 50, 4450 (2013).
15.Casavola, C., Cazzato, A., Moramarco, V., and Pappalettera, G.: Residual stress measurement in fused deposition modelling parts. Polym. Test. 58, 249255 (2017).
16.Sood, A.K., Ohdar, R., and Mahapatra, S.S.: Improving dimensional accuracy of fused deposition modelling processed part using grey Taguchi method. Mater. Des. 30, 42434252 (2009).
17.Zhang, Q., Yan, D., Zhang, K., and Hu, G.: Pattern transformation of heat-shrinkable polymer by three-dimensional (3d) printing technique. Sci. Rep. 5, 8936 (2015).
18.Turner, B.N. and Gold, S.A.: A review of melt extrusion additive manufacturing processes: II. Materials, dimensional accuracy, and surface roughness. Rapid Prototyp. J. 21, 250261 (2015).
19.Zhang, J., Wang, X.Z., Yu, W.W., and Deng, Y.H.: Numerical investigation of the influence of process conditions on the temperature variation in fused deposition modeling. Mater. Des. 130, 5968 (2017).
20.Zhang, Q., Zhang, K., and Hu, G.: Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3d printing technique. Sci. Rep. 6, 22431 (2016).
21.Bodaghi, M., Damanpack, A., and Liao, W.: Adaptive metamaterials by functionally graded 4d printing. Mater. Des. 135, 2636 (2017).
22.Hu, G., Damanpack, A., Bodaghi, M., and Liao, W.: Increasing dimension of structures by 4d printing shape memory polymers via fused deposition modeling. Smart Mater. Struct. 26, 125023 (2017).
23.Tibbits, S.: The emergence of 4d printing. In TED Conference (2013). Available at: http://www.ted.com/talks/skylar_tibbits_the_emergence_of_4d_printing?language=en.
24.Momeni, F., Liu, X., and Ni, J.: A review of 4d printing. Mater. Des. 122, 4279 (2017).
25.Ge, Q., Dunn, C.K., Qi, H.J., and Dunn, M.L.: Active origami by 4d printing. Smart Mater. Struct. 23, 094007 (2014).
26.Mao, Y., Yu, K., Isakov, M.S., Wu, J., Dunn, M.L., and Qi, H.J.: Sequential self-folding structures by 3d printed digital shape memory polymers. Sci. Rep. 5, 13616 (2015).
27.Liu, K., Wu, J., Paulino, G.H., and Qi, H.J.: Programmable deployment of tensegrity structures by stimulus-responsive polymers. Sci. Rep. 7, 3511 (2017).
28.Tibbits, S.: 4d printing: Multi-material shape change. Architect. Des. 84, 116121 (2014).
29.Nguyen, T.D., Qi, H.J., Castro, F., and Long, K.N.: A thermoviscoelastic model for amorphous shape memory polymers: Incorporating structural and stress relaxation. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 56, 27922814 (2008).
30.Abishera, R., Velmurugan, R., and Gopal, K.N.: Reversible plasticity shape memory effect in epoxy/CNT nanocomposites—A theoretical study. Compos. Sci. Technol. 141, 145153 (2017).
31.Rajkumar, A.R., Ramachandran, V., Gopal, K.V.N., and Gupta, N.K.: Reversible plasticity shape-memory effect in epoxy nanocomposites: Experiments, modeling and predictions. In Mechanics for Materials and Technologies, Advanced Structured Materials, Vol. 46, Altenbach, H., Goldstein, R., and Murashkin, E., eds. (Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2017); pp. 387415.
32.Abishera, R., Velmurugan, R., and Nagendra Gopal, K.: Free, partial, and fully constrained recovery analysis of cold-programmed shape memory epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Experiments and predictions. J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 29, 21642176 (2018).
33.Liu, Y., Gall, K., Dunn, M.L., Greenberg, A.R., and Diani, J.: Thermomechanics of shape memory polymers: Uniaxial experiments and constitutive modeling. Int. J. Plast. 22, 279313 (2006).
34.Arruda, E.M. and Boyce, M.C.: A three-dimensional constitutive model for the large stretch behavior of rubber elastic materials. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 389412 (1993).
35.Li, G. and Xu, W.: Thermomechanical behavior of thermoset shape memory polymer programmed by cold-compression: Testing and constitutive modeling. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59, 12311250 (2011).
36.Boyce, M.C., Weber, G., and Parks, D.M.: On the kinematics of finite strain plasticity. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37, 647665 (1989).
37.Hashmi, S.A., Prasad, H.C., Abishera, R., Bhargaw, H.N., and Naik, A.: Improved recovery stress in multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes reinforced polyurethane. Mater. Des. 67, 492500 (2015).
38.Abishera, R., Velmurugan, R., and Gopal, K.N.: Reversible plasticity shape memory effect in carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 37, 148158 (2016).
39.Srivastava, V., Chester, S.A., and Anand, L.: Thermally actuated shape-memory polymers: Experiments, theory, and numerical simulations. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 11001124 (2010).
40.Chacón, J., Caminero, M., García-Plaza, E., and Núñez, P.: Additive manufacturing of PLA structures using fused deposition modelling: Effect of process parameters on mechanical properties and their optimal selection. Mater. Des. 124, 143157 (2017).
41.Ning, F., Cong, W., Hu, Y., and Wang, H.: Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites using fused deposition modeling: Effects of process parameters on tensile properties. J. Compos. Mater. 51, 451462 (2017).
42.Jin, Y., Du, J., He, Y., and Fu, G.: Modeling and process planning for curved layer fused deposition. Int. J. Adv. Des. Manuf. Technol. 91, 273285 (2017).
43.Allen, R.J. and Trask, R.S.: An experimental demonstration of effective curved layer fused filament fabrication utilizing a parallel deposition robot. Addit. Manuf. 8, 7887 (2015).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Rajkumar and Shanmugam supplementary material
Rajkumar and Shanmugam supplementary material 1

 Word (1.2 MB)
1.2 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed