Skip to main content

Effects of microstructure and γ′ distribution on the hot deformation behavior for a powder metallurgy superalloy FGH96

  • Chi Zhang (a1), Liwen Zhang (a2), Mengfei Li (a2), Wenfei Shen (a2) and Sendong Gu (a2)...

Aiming to clarify the effects of initial states on hot deformation behavior of a powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloy FGH96, specimens in hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) and solution states were isothermally compressed in the temperature range of 1000–1150 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001–1.0 s−1. It revealed that the flow behavior of FGH96 was dependent on the initial states, in which the deformation resistance was higher in the solution state than that in the HIPed state at evaluated temperatures, and the differences became less when the temperature was higher than the γ′ dissolution temperature. The calculated hot activation energy using peak stresses are 590 and 1285 kJ mol−1 for HIPed and solution specimens. Comparison with HIPed specimen, the efficiency of power dissipation (η) in solution specimen is less, and the optimum workability regime moves to higher temperatures. Cracking and in-grain shear bands were observed in the specimens when compressed in flow instability areas.

Corresponding author
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Hide All
1. Viswanathan, G.B., Sarosi, P.M., Henry, M.F., Whitis, D.D., Milligan, W.W., and Mills, M.J.: Investigation of creep deformation mechanisms at intermediate temperatures in Rene 88 DT. Acta Mater. 53(10), 3041 (2005).
2. Zhang, M-J., Li, F-G., Wang, S-Y., and Liu, C-Y.: Characterization of hot deformation behavior of a P/M nickel-base superalloy using processing map and activation energy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 527(24–25), 6771 (2010).
3. Pan, Q-L., Li, B., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y-W., and Yin, Z-M.: Characterization of hot deformation behavior of Ni-base superalloy Rene'41 using processing map. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 585, 371 (2013).
4. Ning, Y-Q., Yao, Z-K., Zheng, Y., Guo, H-Z., and Fu, M-W.: Flow behavior and hot workability of FGH4096 superalloys with different initial microstructures by using advanced processing maps. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 531, 91 (2012).
5. Ning, Y-Q., Yao, Z-K., Fu, M-W., and Guo, H-Z.: Recrystallization of the hot isostatic pressed nickel-base superalloy FGH4096: I. Microstructure and mechanism. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528(28), 8065 (2011).
6. Ning, Y-Q., Yao, Z-K., Lei, Y-Y., Guo, H-Z., and Fu, M-W.: Hot deformation behavior of the post-cogging FGH4096 superalloy with fine equiaxed microstructure. Mater. Charact. 62(9), 887 (2011).
7. Wu, K., Liu, G-Q., Hu, B-F., Wang, C-Y., Zhang, Y-W., Tao, Y., and Liu, J-T.: Effect of processing parameters on hot compressive deformation behavior of a new Ni–Cr–Co based P/M superalloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528(13–14), 4620 (2011).
8. Wu, K., Liu, G., Hu, B., Li, F., Zhang, Y., Tao, Y., and Liu, J.: Characterization of hot deformation behavior of a new Ni–Cr–Co based P/M superalloy. Mater. Charact. 61(3), 330 (2010).
9. Kang, F-W., Zhang, G-Q., Sun, J-F., Li, Z., and Shen, J.: Hot deformation behavior of a spray formed superalloy. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 204(1–3), 147 (2008).
10. Zhang, H-B., Zhang, K-F., Lu, Z., Zhao, C-H., and Yang, X-L.: Hot deformation behavior and processing map of a γ′-hardened nickel-based superalloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 604, 1 (2014).
11. Wen, D-X., Lin, Y-C., Li, H-B., Chen, X-M., Deng, J., and Li, L-T.: Hot deformation behavior and processing map of a typical Ni-based superalloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 591, 183 (2014).
12. Li, D-F., Guo, Q-M., Guo, S-L., Peng, H-J., and Wu, Z-G.: The microstructure evolution and nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization in hot-deformed Inconel 625 superalloy. Mater. Des. 32(2), 696 (2011).
13. Qiu, C-L., Attallah, M-M., Wu, X-H., and Andrews, P.: Influence of hot isostatic pressing temperature on microstructure and tensile properties of a nickel-based superalloy powder. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 564, 176 (2013).
14. Chen, Y., Slater, T.J.A., Lewis, E., Francis, E.M., Burke, M.G., Preuss, M., and Haigh, S.J.: Measurement of size-dependent composition variations for gamma prime (γ′) precipitates in an advanced nickel-based superalloy. Ultramicroscopy 144, 1 (2014).
15. Lin, Y-C., Wen, D-X., Deng, J., Liu, G., and Chen, J.: Constitutive models for high-temperature flow behaviors of a Ni-based superalloy. Mater. Des. 59, 115 (2014).
16. Wang, Y., Pan, Q-L., Song, Y-F., Li, C., and Li, Z-F.: Hot deformation and processing maps of X-750 nickel-based superalloy. Mater. Des. 51, 154 (2013).
17. Thamburaj, R., Wallace, W., Chari, Y.N., and Prakash, T.L.: Influence of processing variables on prior particle boundary precipitation and mechanical behaviour in PM superalloy APK1. Powder Metall. 27(3), 169 (1984).
18. Marquez, C., L'Esperance, G., and Koul, A.K.: Prior particle boundary precipitation in Ni-base superalloys. Int. J. Powder Metall. 25(4), 301 (1989).
19. Menzies, R.G., Bricknell, R.H., and Craven, A.J.: STEM microanalysis of precipitates and their nuclei in a nickel-base superalloy. Philos. Mag. A 41(4), 493 (1980).
20. Rao, G-A., Srinivas, M., and Sarma, D.S.: Influence of modified processing on structure and properties of hot isostatically pressed superalloy Inconel 718. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 418(1–2), 282 (2006).
21. Whitmore, L., Ahmadi, M.R., Stockinger, M., Povoden-Karadeniz, E., Kozeschnik, E., and Leitner, H.: Microstructural investigation of thermally aged nickel-based superalloy 718Plus. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 594, 253 (2014).
22. Qiu, C-L. and Andrews, P.: On the formation of irregular-shaped gamma prime and serrated grain boundaries in a nickel-based superalloy during continuous cooling. Mater. Charact. 76, 28 (2013).
23. Wu, K., Liu, G., Hu, B., Zhang, Y., Tao, Y., and Liu, J.: Effect of solution cooling rate and post treatment on γ′ precipitation and microhardness of a novel nickel-based P/M superalloy FGH98. Rare Met. Mater. Eng. 41(7), 1267 (2012).
24. Ning, Y-Q., Kun, Y-Z., Fu, M-W., and Guo, H-Z.: Dynamic recrystallization of the hot isostatically pressed P/M superalloy FGH4096 in hot working process. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 527(26), 6968 (2010).
25. Singh, A.R.P., Nag, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Ren, Y., Tiley, J., Viswanathan, G.B., Fraser, H.L., and Banerjee, R.: Mechanisms related to different generations of γ′ precipitation during continuous cooling of a nickel base superalloy. Acta Mater. 61(1), 280 (2013).
26. Wang, Y., Shao, W-Z., Zhen, L., and Zhang, B-Y.: Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528(7–8), 3218 (2011).
27. Ning, Y-Q., Fu, M-W., and Chen, X.: Hot deformation behavior of GH4169 superalloy associated with stick phase dissolution during isothermal compression process. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 540, 164 (2012).
28. Hu, B-F., Chen, H-M., Jin, K-S., and Li, H-Y.: Static recrystallization mechanism of FGH95 superalloy. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. 14(6), 901 (2004).
29. Zhang, C., Liu, Z., and Wang, G.: Effects of hot rolled shear bands on formability and surface ridging of an ultra purified 21%Cr ferritic stainless steel. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211(6), 1051 (2011).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 47 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 306 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.