Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Electrical resistance of metallic contacts on silicon and germanium during indentation

  • G.M. Pharr (a1), W.C. Oliver (a2), R.F. Cook (a3), P.D. Kirchner (a3), M.C. Kroll (a3), T.R. Dinger (a3) and D.R. Clarke (a4)...
Abstract

The effects of indentation on the electrical resistance of rectifying gold-chromium contacts on silicon and germanium have been studied using nanoindentation techniques. The DC resistance of circuits consisting of positively and negatively biased contacts with silicon and germanium in the intervening gap was measured while indenting either directly in the gap or on the contacts. Previous experiments showed that a large decrease in resistance occurs when an indentation bridges a gap, which was used to support the notion that a transformation from the semiconducting to the metallic state occurs beneath the indenter. The experimental results reported here, however, show that a large portion of the resistance drop is due to decreases in the resistance of the metal-to-semiconductor interface rather than the bulk semiconductor. Experimental evidence supporting this is presented, and a simple explanation for the physical processes involved is developed which still relies on the concept of an indentation-induced, semiconducting-to-metallic phase transformation.

Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Gupta, M.C. and Ruoff, A.L., J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1072 (1980).
2.Duclos, S. C., Vohra, Y. K., and Ruoff, A. L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 775 (1987).
3.Olijnyk, H., Sikka, S. K., and Holzapfel, W. B., Phys. Lett. 103A, 137 (1984).
4.Minomura, H. and Drickamer, H.G., J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 451 (1962).
5.Hu, J.Z., Merkle, L.D., Menoni, C.S., and Spain, I.L., Phys. Rev. B 34, 4679 (1986).
6.Qadri, S.B., Skelton, E.F., and Webb, A.W., J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3609 (1983).
7.Shimomura, O., Minomura, S., Sakai, N., Asaumi, K., Tamura, K., Fukushima, J., and Endo, H., Philos. Mag. 29, 547 (1974).
8.Gridneva, I.V., Milman, Yu. V., and Trefilov, V.I., Phys. Status Solidi (a) 14, 177 (1972).
9.Danyluk, S., Kim, D.S., and Kalejs, J., J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 4, 1135 (1985).
10.Clarke, D. R., Kroll, M. C., Kirchner, P. D., Cook, R. F., and Hockey, B. J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 2156 (1988).
11.Pharr, G.M., Oliver, W.C., and Clarke, D.R., J. Elec. Mater. 19, 881 (1990).
12.Pharr, G. M., Oliver, W. C., and Clarke, D. R., Scripta Metall. 23, 1949 (1989).
13.Sargent, P. M., “Factors Affecting Microhardness of Solids”, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge (1981).
14.Gerk, A. P. and Tabor, D., Nature 271, 732 (1978).
15.Tabor, D., Nature 273, 406 (1978).
16.Roberts, S. G., Warren, P.D., and Hirsch, P.B., J. Mater. Res. 1, 162 (1986).
17.Gilman, J. J., in The Science of Hardness Testing and Its Research Applications, edited by Westbrook, J. H. and Conrad, H. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1973), p. 54.
18.Pharr, G. M., Oliver, W. C., and Harding, D. S., J. Mater. Res. 6, 1129 (1991).
19.Rideout, V. L. and Crowell, C. R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 329 (1967).
20.Pethica, J. B., Hutchings, R., and Oliver, W. C., Philos. Mag. A 48, 593 (1983).
21.Oliver, W. C., Hutchings, R., and Pethica, J. B., in ASTM STP 889, edited by Blau, P. J. and Lawn, B. R. (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1986), pp. 90108.
22.Stone, D., LaFontaine, W. R., Alexopoulos, P., Wu, T-W., and Li, Che-Yu, J. Mater. Res. 3, 141 (1988).
23.Cook, R. F. and Pharr, G. M., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73, 787 (1990).
24.Lankford, J. and Davidson, D.L., J. Mater. Sci. 14, 1662 (1979).
25.Sata, T., Takamoto, K., and Yoshikawa, H., Bull. Jpn. Soc. Prec. Engrg. 3, 13 (1969).
26.Puttick, K. E., Shahid, M. A., and Hosseini, M. M., J. Phys. D 12, 195 (1979).
27.Langford, S.C., Doering, D.L., and Dickinson, J.T., Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 2795 (1987).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed