Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ellis, Elizabeth A. Chmielus, Markus Lin, Ming-Tzer Joress, Howie Visser, Kyle Woll, Arthur Vinci, Richard P. Brown, Walter L. and Baker, Shefford P. 2016. Driving forces for texture transformation in thin Ag films. Acta Materialia, Vol. 105, p. 495.

    Liu, Ziyu Cai, Jian and Wang, Qian 2015. Interfacial morphology and grain orientation during bumpless direct Cu bonding. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 595, p. 118.

    Baker, Shefford P. Hoffman, Brandon Timian, Lindsay Silvernail, Adam and Ellis, Elizabeth A. 2013. Texture transformations in Ag thin films. Acta Materialia, Vol. 61, Issue. 19, p. 7121.

    Baker, Shefford P. Saha, Krishanu and Shu, Jonathan B. 2013. Effect of thickness and Ti interlayers on stresses and texture transformations in thin Ag films during thermal cycling. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue. 19, p. 191905.

    Ke, Y. Konkova, T. Mironov, S. Tamahashi, K. and Onuki, J. 2013. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of electrodeposited nano-scale copper wires. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 539, p. 207.

    Konkova, T. Mironov, S. Ke, Y. and Onuki, J. 2013. 2013 IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference - IITC. p. 1.

    Miller, David L. Keller, Mark W. Shaw, Justin M. Rice, Katherine P. Keller, Robert R. and Diederichsen, Kyle M. 2013. Giant secondary grain growth in Cu films on sapphire. AIP Advances, Vol. 3, Issue. 8, p. 082105.

    Zhang, Fan Zhang, Rong-Jun Zheng, Yu-Xiang Xu, Zi-Jie Zhang, Dong-Xu Wang, Zi-Yi Xu, Ji-Ping Wang, Song-You and Chen, Liang-Yao 2013. Study of the crystal structure, band gap and dispersion evolution in titanium oxide thin films. physica status solidi (a), Vol. 210, Issue. 11, p. 2374.

    Chung, Chia-Jeng Field, David P. Park, No-Jin and Johnson, Ross G. 2009. Simulation of structure evolution in Cu films. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 517, Issue. 6, p. 1977.


Increasing the mean grain size in copper films and features

  • K. Vanstreels (a1), S.H. Brongersma (a2), Zs. Tokei (a3), L. Carbonell (a3), W. De Ceuninck (a1), J. D’Haen (a1) and M. D’Olieslaeger (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2011

A new grain-growth mode is observed in thick sputtered copper films. This new grain-growth mode, also referred to in this work as super secondary grain growth (SSGG) leads to highly concentric grain growth with grain diameters of many tens of micrometers, and drives the system toward a {100} texture. The appearance, growth dynamics, final grain size, and self-annealing time of this new grain-growth mode strongly depends on the applied bias voltage during deposition of these sputtered films, the film thickness, the post-deposition annealing temperature, and the properties of the copper diffusion barrier layers used in this work. Moreover, a clear rivalry between this new growth mode and the regularly observed secondary grain-growth mode in sputtered copper films was found. The microstructure and texture evolution in these films is explained in terms of surface/interface energy and strain-energy density minimizing driving forces, where the latter seems to be an important driving force for the observed new growth mode. By combining these sputtered copper films with electrochemically deposited (ECD) copper films of different thickness, the SSGG growth mode could also be introduced in ECD copper, but this led to a reduced final SSGG grain size for thicker ECD films. The knowledge about the thin-film level is used to also implement this new growth mode in small copper features by slightly modifying the standard deposition process. It is shown that the SSGG growth mode can be introduced in narrow structures, but optimizations are still necessary to further increase the mean grain size in features.

Corresponding author
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1D.C. Edelstein : Copper chip technology in Proceedings of SPIE Conference, Multilevel Interconnect Technology IIedited by M. Graef, and D.N. Patel, Vol. 3508, SPIEBellingham, WA1998 8

3P.C. Andricacos , C. Uzoh , J.O. Dukovic , J. Horkans , H. Deligianni : Damascene copper electroplating for chip interconnections. IBM J. Res. Dev. 42, 5671998

4D. Josell , D. Wheeler , W.H. Huber , T.P. Moffat : Superconformal electrodeposition in submicron features. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 0161012001

5S.H. Brongersma , E. Kerr , I. Vervoort , A. Saerens , K. Maex : Grain growth, stress, and impurities in electroplated copper. J. Mater. Res. 17, 5822002

6S.H. Brongersma , E. Richard , I. Vervoort , H. Bender , W. Vandervorst , S. Lagrange , G. Beyer , K. Maex : Two-step room temperature grain growth in electroplated copper. J. Appl. Phys. 86, 36421999

8C.V. Thompson : Secondary grain growth in thin films of semiconductors: Theoretical aspects. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 7631985

11P. Gopalraja , J. Forster : Nonlinear wave interaction in a magnetron plasma. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(22), 35262000

16C.V. Thompson : Experimental and theoretical aspects of grain growth in thin films. Mater. Sci. Forum 94-96, 2451992

17J.E. Sanchez , E. Arzt : Effects of grain orientation on hillock formation and grain growth in aluminum films on silicon substrates. Scripta Metall. Mater. 27, 2851992

18C.V. Thompson : Texture evolution during grain growth in polycrystalline films. Scripta Metall. Mater. 28, 1671993

19J.M.E. Harper , C. Cabral Jr., P.C. Andricacos , L. Gignac , I.C. Noyan , K.P. Rodbell , C.K. Hu : Mechanisms for microstructure evolution in electroplated copper thin films near room temperature. J. Appl. Phys. 86, 25161999

20C.V. Thompson : Coarsening of particles on a planar substrate: Interface energy anistropy and application to grain growth in thin films. Acta Metall. 36, 29291988

21M. McLean , B. Gale : Surface energy anisotropy by an improved thermal grooving technique. Philos. Mag. 20, 10331969

22Z. Jian-Min , M. Fei , X. Ke-Wei : Calculation of the surface energy of fcc metals with modified embedded-atom method. Chin. Phys. 13, 10822004

23M. Murikami , P. Chaudhari : Dependence of strains on crystal orientation in Pb thin films. Thin Solid Films 46, 1091977

24E.M. Zielinski , R.P. Vinci , J.C. Bravman : Effects of barrier layer and annealing on abnormal grain growth in copper thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 76, 45161994

26J.W. Patten , E.D. McClanahan , J.W. Johnson : Room-temperature recrystallization in thick bias-sputtered copper deposits. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 43711971

28S.M. Rossnagel , T.S. Kuan : Time development of microstructure and resistivity for very thin Cu Films. J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 20, 19112002

29E.V. Barnat , D. Nagakura , P.I. Wang , T.M. Lu : Real time resistivity measurements during sputter deposition of ultrathin copper films. J. Appl. Phys. 91, 16672002

30C. Detavernier , D. Deduytsche , R.L. Van Meirhaege , J. De Baerdemaeker , C. Dauwe : Room-temperature grain growth in sputter-deposited Cu films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 18632003

31S.P. Murarka , S.W. Hymes : Copper metallization for ULSI and beyond. Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 20, 871995

32P. Chaudhari : Mechanisms of stress relief in polycrystalline films. IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 1971969

33S-J. Hwang , Y-D. Lee , Y-B. Park , J-H. Lee , C-O. Jeong , Y-C. Joo : In situ study of stress relaxation mechanisms of pure Al thin films during isothermal annealing. Scripta Mater. 54, 18412006

36D.P. Field , T. Muppidi , J.E. Sanchez : Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of inlaid Cu lines for interconnect applications. Scanning 25(6), 3092003

37C. Lingk , M.E. Gross , W.L. Brown : X-ray diffraction pole figures evidence for (111) sidewall texture of electroplated Cu in submicron damascence trenches. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 6821999

38P.R. Besser , E. Zschech , W. Blum , D. Winter , R. Oretega , S. Rose , M. Herrick , M. Gall , S. Thrasher , M. Tiner , B. Baker , G. Braeckelmann , L. Zhao , C. Simpson , C. Capasso , H. Kawasaki , E. Weitzman : Microstructural characterization of inlaid copper interconnect lines. J. Electron. Mater. 30, 3202001

39D.N. Lee , H.J. Lee : Effect of stresses on the evolution of annealing textures in Cu and Al interconnects. J. Electron. Mater. 32, 10122003

40K.P. Rodbell , D.B. Knorr , J.D. Mis : The microstructure, mechanical stress, texture, and electromigration behavior of Al-Pd alloys. J. Electron. Mater. 22, 5971993

41M.J. Attardo , R. Rosenberg : Electromigration damage in aluminum film conductors. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 23811970

42A.N. Campbell , E.M. Russel , D.B. Knorr : Relationship between texture and electromigration lifetime in sputtered Al-1%Si thin films. J. Electron. Mater. 22, 5891993

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *