A new parameter, hardness/modulus2 (H/E2), has been derived from the equations used to calculate the hardness and elastic modulus from data taken during continuous depth-sensing microindentation tests. This paper discusses the use of this parameter to treat the data obtained from a sample whose surface roughness was of the same scale as the size of the indents. The resulting data were widely scattered. This scatter was reduced when the data were plotted in terms of H/E2 versus stiffness. The effect of surface roughness on the hardness and elastic modulus results is removed via stiffness measurements, provided single contacts are made between the indenter and the specimen. The function relating the cross-sectional area of the indenter versus the distance from its point is not required for calculation of H/E2, but the hardness and modulus cannot be determined separately. The parameter H/E2 indicates resistance to plastic penetration in this case.