Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Synergistic catalytic effect of iron metallic glass particles in direct blue dye degradation

  • Santanu Das (a1), Venugopal Bandi (a2), Harpreet Singh Arora (a3), Medha Veligatla (a3), Seth Garrison (a3), Francis D'Souza (a4) and Sundeep Mukherjee (a5)...

We report on the high catalytic activity of iron based metallic glass (MG) particles in dissociating direct blue dye (C32H20N6Na4O14S4) (DBD), a toxic water pollutant. We adopted high speed mechanical milling to activate the FeMG particles (of nominal composition Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6) and optimized the morphology and the particle size to achieve complete degradation of DBD in less than 20 min. The surface morphology and the particle size of the activated particles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They were found to have corrugated edge like catalytically active surfaces after mechanical activation. The dye degradation rate of the activated MG powder was characterized via UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The rate of dye degradation was significantly faster for the activated particles (within 20 min), compared to both pristine FeMG particles as well as elemental iron particles. In addition, the dye degradation mechanism was studied using Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The catalytically activated surfaces are believed to break the –C–H–, –C–N–, and –N=N– bonds, resulting in complete degradation of DBD.

Corresponding author
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Hide All
1. MesterT. and TienM.: Oxidation mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 46, 5159, (2000).
2. SarataleR.G., SarataleG.D., ChangJ.S., and GovindwarS.P.: Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: A review. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 42, 138157 (2011).
3. AgrawalA. and TratnyekP.G.: Reduction of nitro aromatic compounds by zero-valent iron metal. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 153160 (1995).
4. EykholtG.R. and DavenportD.T.: Dechlorination of the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor by iron metal. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 14821487 (1998).
5. ZhangW-x.: Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview. J. Nanopart. Res. 5, 323332 (2003).
6. CaoJ., WeiL., HuangQ., WangL., and HanS.: Reducing degradation of azo dye by zero-valent iron in aqueous solution. Chemosphere 38, 565571 (1999).
7. YoshidaY., OgataS., NakamatsuS., ShimamuneT., KikawaK., InoueH., and IwakuraC.: Decoloration of azo dye using atomic hydrogen permeating through a Pt-modified palladized Pd sheet electrode. Electrochim. Acta 45, 409414 (1999).
8. NamS. and TratnyekP.G.: Reduction of azo dyes with zero-valent iron. Water Res. 34, 18371845 (2000).
9. BiggT. and JuddS.J.: Kinetics of reductive degradation of azo dye by zero-valent iron. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 79, 297303 (2001).
10. ArnoldW.A. and RobertsA.L.: Pathways and kinetics of chlorinated ethylene and chlorinated acetylene reaction with Fe(0) particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 17941805 (2000).
11. ChoeS., ChangY-Y., HwangK-Y., and KhimJ.: Kinetics of reductive denitrification by nanoscale zero-valent iron. Chemosphere 41, 13071311 (2000).
12. SchroersJ.: On the formability of bulk metallic glass in its supercooled liquid state. Acta Mater. 56, 471478 (2008).
13. GreerA.L.: Metallic glasses. Science 267, 19471953 (1995).
14. CarmoM., SekolR.C., DingS., KumarG., SchroersJ., and TaylorA.D.: Bulk metallic glass nanowire architecture for electrochemical applications. ACS Nano 5, 29792983 (2011).
15. SekolR.C., KumarG., CarmoM., GittlesonF., Hardesty-DyckN., MukherjeeS., SchroersJ., and TaylorA.D.: Bulk metallic glass micro fuel cell. Small 9, 20812085 (2013).
16. WangJ-Q., LiuY-H., ChenM-W., XieG-Q., Louzguine-LuzginD.V., InoueA., and PerepezkoJ.H.: Rapid degradation of azo dye by Fe-based metallic glass powder. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 25672570 (2012).
17. LiuP., ZhangJ.L., ZhaM.Q., and ShekC.H.: Synthesis of an Fe rich amorphous structure with a catalytic effect to rapidly decolorize azo dye at room temperature. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 55005505 (2014).
18. ZhangC., ZhuZ., ZhangH., and HuZ.: Rapid decolorization of Acid Orange II aqueous solution by amorphous zero-valent iron. J. Environ. Sci. 24, 10211026 (2012).
19. ZhangC., ZhuZ., ZhangH., and HuZ.: On the decolorization property of Fe–Mo–Si–B alloys with different structures. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 6164 (2012).
20. ÖzkarS.: Enhancement of catalytic activity by increasing surface area in heterogeneous catalysis. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 12721277 (2009).
21. LangN.D. and KohnW.: Theory of metal surfaces: Charge density and surface energy. Phys. Rev. B 1, 45554568 (1970).
22. Rodriguez de la FuenteO., Gonzalez-BarrioM.A., NavarroV., PabonB.M., PalacioI., and MascaraqueA.: Surface defects and their influence on surface properties. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 484008 (2013).
23. HammerB. and NørskovJ.K.: Theoretical surface science and catalysis—calculations and concepts. In Advances in Catalysis, Vol. 45, BruceH.K. and GatesC. eds. (Academic Press, New York, NY, 2000); pp. 71129.
24. WeberE.J.: Iron-mediated reductive transformations: Investigation of reaction mechanism. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30, 716719 (1996).
25. MathesonL.J. and TratnyekP.G.: Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated methanes by iron metal. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 20452053 (1994).
26. XiaY., XiongY., LimB., and SkrabalakS.E.: Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals: Simple chemistry meets complex physics? Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 60103 (2009).
27. TianN., ZhouZ-Y., SunS-G., DingY., and WangZ.L.: Synthesis of tetrahexahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and high electro-oxidation activity. Science 316, 732735 (2007).
28. MaY., KuangQ., JiangZ., XieZ., HuangR., and ZhengL.: Synthesis of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets by a facile chemical method. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 89018904 (2008).
29. AbazariR., HeshmatpourF., and BalalaieS.: Pt/Pd/Fe trimetallic nanoparticle produced via reverse micelle technique: Synthesis, characterization, and its use as an efficient catalyst for reductive hydrodehalogenation of aryl and aliphatic halides under mild conditions. ACS Catal. 3, 139149 (2013).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Materials Research
  • ISSN: 0884-2914
  • EISSN: 2044-5326
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-materials-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Das et al. supplementary material
Supplementary figures

 Word (3.5 MB)
3.5 MB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 41 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 247 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.